Hersh’s New Syria Revelations Buried From View

by JONATHAN COOK

Veteran investigative journalist Seymour Hersh, the man who exposed the Mai Lai massacre during the Vietnam War and the US military’s abuses of Iraqi prisoners at Abu Ghraib in 2004, is probably the most influential journalist of the modern era, with the possible exception of Bob Woodward and Carl Bernstein, the pair who exposed Watergate.

…Hersh’s investigations have not only undermined evidence-free claims being promoted in the west to destabilise Assad’s goverment but threatened a wider US policy seeking to “remake the Middle East”.

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 22 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Boston. Bureau of Special Education. Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Neal K. Kaske, Nancy D. Padak, and Renee J. Martin.

Kaske, Neal K. (1990). Library Programs. College Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program. HEA Title II-D. Abstracts and Analysis of Funded Projects 1989. Technological advancement in academic library resources sharing, networking, and information transfer have developed dramatically in the past decade, with institutions (including nonacademic libraries) finding themselves hard pressed to acquire the resources necessary to institute or otherwise improve their networking capabilities. Further, these new developments have posed new problems that need to be researched in depth and new alternatives that need to be tested. To assist in meeting these needs, Congress enacted the College Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program under the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, authorizing the Secretary of Education to make four types of grants: (1) Networking Grants for institutions of higher education demonstrating a need for special assistance to participate in library networking for resource sharing; (2) Combination Grants for institutions of higher education in need of special assistance for joint use of libraries; (3) Services to Institutions Grants to assist nonacademic libraries in providing additional services to academia; and (4) Research and Demonstration Grants supporting projects that meet national or regional library needs in the utilization of technology. In addition, Continuation Grants were also awarded to those projects which first won awards in 1988 and were recommended for continuation in 1989. This collection of abstracts provides information on each of the 62 projects funded in 1989, including the name of the institution, the project director, the grant period, funding for fiscal year 1989, the grant number, and a brief descritpion. Seven tables present: the state distribution of awards; a summary of the funding; grant requests, awards, and matching funds, by type of grant; descriptive information on institutions awarded grants; distribution of applications; distribution of awards; and the percentage of awards and funds. An appendix describes the formal grant application process.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Libraries, Categorical Aid, Computer Networks, Federal Aid

Massachusetts State Dept. of Education, Boston. Bureau of Special Education. (1978). Diagnosis and Intervention in Bilingual Special Education: Searching for New Alternatives. Proceedings. Publication #11704-39-300-1-80. The following articles, edited versions of the principal speakers' presentations on bilingual special education, are presented: (1) "Cultural Diversity: Implications for Educational Change," by Dr. William Parker; (2) "Criteria for Identification, Placement, and Transfer of Transitional Bilingual Students," by Yolanda Ulloa; (3) "How to Utilize the Resources Available at the National Assessment and Dissemination Center at Lesley College," by George De George; (4) "A Model for Kindergarten and First Grade Screening of Non-English Speaking and Bilingual Children," by Marjorie K. Delgado; (5) "A Parent-Child Model of Early Intervention," by Diane Franklin; (6) "Process for Training Teachers in the Assessment of Language Proficiency of Bilingual Children," by C. Freytes and C.  Rivera; (7) "Sociolinguistic Dimensions of Bilingual Assessment," by Dr. Alvino Fantini; (8) "Special Education for the Hispanic Child: A Ten Point Action Plan," by Manuel Sedo; and (9) "Vacational Education for the Bilingual Student with Special Needs," by Carol Denker. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Bilingual Students, Bilingualism, Cultural Pluralism

Padak, Nancy D., Ed.; And Others (1992). Literacy Research and Practice: Foundations for the Year 2000: Fourteenth Yearbook of the College Reading Association. This 1992 yearbook presents the following 26 articles: "Tensions between Numbers and Knowing: A Study of Changes in Assessment during Implementation of Literature-Based Reading Instruction" (P. L. Scharer); "Story Reading in Daycare: A Help or a Hindrance?" (F. K. Hurley); "Preservice Teachers' Reminiscences of Positive and Negative Reading Experiences: A Qualitative Study" (B. Moss); "Preparing Preservice Teachers for Remedial Instruction: Teaching Problem Solving and Use of Content and Pedagogical Knowledge" (V. J. Risko and others); "Rethinking the College-Based Reading Clinic: Past Traditions and New Alternatives" (J. Cassidy and M. L. Hanes); "Researching One's Own Teaching in a Reading Education Course" (L. Christensen and B. J. Walker); "Improving Teacher Questioning: A Study of a Training Program" (C. S. Johnson and A. D. Evans); "The Belief Systems and Instructional Choices of Preservice Teachers" (R. B. Lonberger); "Changes in Primary Teachers' Instructional Practices After Year 1 of a Collaborative Whole Language Project" (C. D. Kraus); "Grouping for Reading Instruction in the Multicultural Classroom: Dilemmas and Solutions" (E. G. Sturtevant); "Story and Song: Integrating Music into the Literature Curriculum" (K. A. Koebler); "The Reader as a Sleuth: Engagement by Intrusion" (M. C. Alvarez); "Overcoming Environmental Obstacles to Reading: A Comparative Analysis" (S. M. KaiKai and R. E. KaiKai); "Student, Teacher, and Expert Differences in Identifying Important Content Area Vocabulary" (D. L. Mealey and others); "Preparing Literacy Teachers: Elements of an Effective Training Model" (G. Y. Turner); "A Nonacademic Adult Writer's Workshop" (J. Phillips); "Undereducated Adults: Retrospections of Childhood Homes and Reports of Present Practice" (B. J. Fox and M. D. Siedow); "Directed and Spontaneous Transfer of Textmarking: A Case Study" (D. L. Mealy and D. W. Frazier); "Person, Process, Product: Goals of an Integrated Reading/Writing Curriculum for Underprepared College Freshmen" (J. K. Stadulis and D. G. Shearer); "Fostering Metacognitive Growth in College Literature Classrooms" (E. V. Newton); "Writing in Response to Reading: Strategies to Foster Comprehension" (A. R. Friedman); "Children's Emergent Reading Behaviors across Different Kinds of Text and the Relation to Writing Systems" (J. E. Barnhart); "Portfolio Assessment: Interpretations and Implications for Classroom Teachers and Reading Teachers" (R. P. Harlin and others); "Taking Responsibility for Taking Tests" (J. S. Richardson); "Scotopic Sensitivity Syndrome and Its Treatment by Colored Overlays and Lens Filters: An Update" (W. A. Henk); and "Questioning the Verbal Superiority of Girls: Gender Differences Revisited" (M. M. Brittain and C. V. Brittain).   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Literacy, Case Studies, Elementary Secondary Education, Emergent Literacy

Martin, Renee J., Ed. (1995). Practicing What We Teach: Confronting Diversity in Teacher Education. This work probes the confines of traditional approaches to teaching about diversity, and it explores the possibilities for redefining links between theory and practice, thereby presenting an alternative repertoire for teacher education that emphasizes the relationship between ideology and pedagogy. The publication is in 3 sections. Part 1, Alternative Templates: Building New Foundations, contains 5 chapters: (1) "Teaching Controversial Issues in Higher Education: Pedagogical Techniques and Analytical Framework" (Julie Andrzejewski); (2) "Thinking about Diversity: Paradigms, Meanings, and Representations" (Robert Muffoletto); (3) "Teaching about Diversity through Reflectivity: Sites of Uncertainty, Risk, and Possibility" (Kathleen S. Farber); (4) "Deconstructing Myth, Reconstructing Reality: Transcending the Crisis in Teacher Education" (Renee J. Martin); and (5) "What s All This White Male Bashing?" (Carl Allsup). Part 2, Impact and Implications of Biography for Pedagogy, contains 4 chapters: (6) "Multicultural Teacher Education for a Culturally Diverse Teaching Force" (Carmen Montecinos); (7) "Teaching Whites about Racism" (Christine Sleeter); (8) "Creating Classroom Environments for Change" (Keith Osajima); and (9) "What's in It for Me?: Persuading Nonminority Teacher Education Students to Become Advocates for Multicultural Education" (Kent Koppelman and Robert Richardson). Part 3, Multiple Realities: Multiple Enactments," contains 6 chapters: (10) "Reflecting on Cultural Diversity through Early Field Experiences" (William D. Armaline); (11) "To Participate…To Speak Out: A Story from San Elizario, Texas (Elizabeth Quintero and Ana Huerta-Macias); (12) "Theoretical Perspectives and Multicultural Applications" (Lourdes Diaz Soto; Tina Richardson); (13) "Beyond Bats and Balls: Teaching about Knowledge, Culture, Power, and Ideology in Physical Education" (Robyn S. Lock); (14) "Seeds of Change: A Pilot Study of Senior Preservice Teachers Responses to Issues of Human Diversity in One University Course" (Evelyn McCain-Reid); and (15) "The Coalition for Education That Is Multicultural: A Network of Advocates for Educational Equity" (Marilynne Boyle-Baise). Descriptors: Attitude Change, Classroom Environment, Constructivism (Learning), Critical Theory

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 21 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Tish Sommers, Reginald S. Nolin, James G. McMurry, Washington Congress of the U.S, Harold S. Madsen, Maria S. Carlo, Delia E. Lugo, Mary Ann Danielson, John Hollwitz, and Susan Stoddard Pflueger.

Brehm, Jack W.; Rozen, Elena (1971). Attractiveness of Old Alternatives When a New, Attractive Alternative Is Introduced, Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Behavior Patterns, Behavioral Science Research, Cognitive Processes

American Association of School Administrators, Washington, DC. National Academy for School Executives. (1972). ERIC Abstracts: A Collection of ERIC Document Resumes on Alternative Schooling: New Patterns in Education. ERIC Abstracts Series, Number Twenty-two. ERIC abstracts on alternative schooling, announced in RIE through August 1972, are presented. The key terms used in compiling this collection are "community schools" and "experimental schools." The documents present materials on alternative learning plans, community involvement in developing alternative plans, case studies, and information about starting alternative programs. The following information is presented for each document: Author, title, place of publication, publisher, publication date, number of pages, ERIC document ("ED") number, price and availability, and the abstract. A subject index refers to the document listing number. The subject terms, arranged in alphabetical order, are identical to those contained in the subject index of RIE.   [More]  Descriptors: Abstracts, Bibliographies, Community Involvement, Community Schools

Pflueger, Susan Stoddard (1977). Independent Living. Emerging Issues in Rehabilitation. Major research findings are synthesized and innovations of current concern to vocational rehabilitation professionals are reported in this document, which covers the area of independent living. Independent living is described as an integral part of the rehabilitation process for the severely disabled in which the individual is assisted in achieving personal and vocational objectives. In the introductory chapter, three partial concepts of independent living are reviewed: physical modification, rehabilitation, and consumer rights. Chapter 2, concerning independent living and federal rehabilitation legislation, reviews attempts to introduce independent living as a component of vocational rehabilitation services, illustrating a number of planning issues that confront policy makers.  Chapter 3 discusses the problem of defining the target populations. Chapter 4 describes alternative delivery strategies/systems for independent living services, identifies several major dimensions of these programs, and reviews several examples of independent living service models. Chapter 5 reviews two programs where alternatives for organization and delivery of independent living services are being systematically evaluated. Chapter 6 reviews analytical and theoretical work to date on estimating the costs and benefits of independent living. Chapter 7, the conclusion, re-emphasizes the main programmatic features of the consumer model of independent living, and outlines major policy questions and the agenda for exploring new alternatives. An annotated bibliography is appended.  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Change Strategies, Definitions, Delivery Systems

Tierney, Dennis; And Others (1992). Assessment Component of the California New Teacher Project: Alternative Models of New Teacher Assessment and Support. Finding ways to improve the assessment of beginning teachers is part of an effort to assure that fully certified teachers possess the professional knowledge and skills necessary for competence in contemporary classrooms. Research done by the California New Teacher Project (CNTP) suggests that some knowledge and skills cannot be fully learned in preservice teacher education programs. Following a review of current licensure practices in California and the value of linking teacher support and assessment with each other, this report describes three models of alternative assessment and two options for implementing them. The models are: Research Dissemination and Technical Assistance Model, Program Review with Technical Assistance Model, and Staged Assessment with Technical Assistance Model. The description of each model includes an overview; a discussion of the standards, methods, technical quality, purposes and uses, and advantages and disadvantages of the model; and probable costs of adopting the model. The models draw on findings of the CNTP, particularly the pilot testing of alternative assessment approaches and the initial development of a framework of knowledge, skills, and abilities that teachers can be expected to attain within the first 3 years of full-time teaching. Alternative models for the assessment of beginning teachers would permit individuals to begin a teaching career with the support of experienced teachers and to undergo an assessment that would permit candidates to demonstrate their fitness for teaching in California schools.   [More]  Descriptors: Beginning Teacher Induction, Change Strategies, Cost Estimates, Elementary Secondary Education

Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Select Committee on Aging. (1986). Health Maintenance Organizations: The New York Perspective. Hearing before the Subcommittee on Human Services of the Select Committee on Aging. House of Representatives, Ninety-Ninth Congress, Second Session (New York, NY). This document contains witnesses' testimonies from the Congressional hearing held in New York to gain that state's perspective on health maintenance organizations (HMOs). The hearing was convened by Robert Blancato and prepared statements from Representatives Mario Biaggi and Thomas Manton are included. Chairman Biaggi's statement calls the hearing an opportunity to evaluate HMOs and their relationship to elderly participants and to learn about the requirements for becoming an HMO in New York, as well as existing regulatory safeguards at the federal and state levels. Three panels of witnesses representing the regulators, providers, and members of the New York health care community provide testimony. Panel One consists of Robert Biblo, president, Health Insurance Plan of Greater New York; David Perry, senior vice president, Hospital Association of New York State; and Robert Thompson, executive vice president, Greater New York Hospital Association. Panel Two includes Jacqueline Wilson, acting regional administrator, Health Care Finance Administration, Region II; Frank Seubold, associate director for Health Maintenance Organizations, Health Resources and Services Administration, U.S. Public Health Service; and David Horinka, director, Bureau of Alternative Delivery Systems, New York State Department of Health. Panel Three consists of William J. Kane, president, U.S. Health Care, Inc. and Warren D. Paley, president, Capital Area Health Plan, Inc.   [More]  Descriptors: Health Facilities, Health Insurance, Health Needs, Hearings

Sloan, Charles A.; Nolin, Reginald S. (1981). The Survival of Small and Rural Schools: In Search of New Alternatives, Rural Educator. A model, appropriate for small and rural schools, offers an alternative to consolidation. Through its use, four Minnesota school districts have retained aspects of local school tradition and have provided improved educational opportunities to their high school students. Descriptors: Advisory Committees, Consolidated Schools, Declining Enrollment, Educational Cooperation

Hollwitz, John; Danielson, Mary Ann (1995). Measure the Place before You Measure the People: New Alternatives for Quality Assessment, Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education. Two procedures for systematic organizational quality assessment are presented: (1) a distributional assessment to monitor individual, group, or unit performance by establishing real and maximum-feasibility parameters; and (2) a cost-assessment system based on utility analysis, to assign dollar values and benefits to quality interventions targeting specific jobs and job functions. Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Costs, Educational Quality, Institutional Characteristics

McMurry, James G.; Trott, James W. (1987). Telelearning Offers New Alternatives for T&I Delivery Systems. In July 1985, declining state revenues forced Louisiana state legislators to institute a number of layoffs and hiring freezes at postsecondary-level vocational-technical schools in the state and to discontinue the state's policy of paying for the continuing education courses that the state's secondary-level trade and industrial education (T&I) teachers needed to fulfill their state certification requirements. These two factors created the need for alternative methods of delivering professional continuing education to T&I teachers throughout the state. A telecourse entitled "Testing in Vocational Trade and Industrial Education" was developed to meet this need. The telecourse offered the following advantages: one teacher could teach the class's four sections simultaneously; the course could be offered to the smallest of classes (one section contained only one student); travel times and costs were reduced; and the telecourse method was perceived as being more intimate than correspondence study. The teachers did, however, note the following disadvantages of the telecourse approach: lack of personal contact between student and instructor, inability to provide individualized attention to students, inability to supervise closely and provide immediate feedback to students, fewer opportunities to evaluate students, and greater formality in the relations between teacher and students than in face-to-face instruction. Despite similar misgivings about the telecourse approach, most students (a 2:1 majority) found the course to be effective. Descriptors: Distance Education, Postsecondary Education, Professional Continuing Education, Program Costs

Nolfi, George J.; And Others (1978). Experiences of Recent High School Graduates. The Transition to Work or Postsecondary Education. The growing complexity of policy decisions in such areas as education and manpower necessitates increased research, which in turn requires an adequate data base and adequate methodology. Recognition that the variables affecting the vocational and educational choices of high school graduates are interrelated and require examination from several points of view is crucial. Two related studies in this area, combined in order to explore these interrelated factors, were conducted using data from the National Longitudinal Survey of the High School Class of 1972. The research strategy adopted uncovered key empirical findings, advanced the methodology in the field while laying the groundwork for further analysis, and brought forth challenges to current federal policies. Three analytical perspectives were used: one oriented to the labor market, a second focused on higher education access and choice, and a third based on relationships between supply and demand in the vocational education market. Several general policy themes run through the work, including the issues of a national youth policy, public investment in education, equity and social integration, occupational information availability, alternative education, and new student populations and life styles. Numerous tables and a substantial bibliography accompany the text. Descriptors: Access to Education, Career Choice, College Choice, Data Analysis

Indiana Univ., Bloomington. School of Education. (1974). Indiana University Alternative School Teacher Education Program. As public school districts have begun to develop optional alternative schools, a common concern has been where to find trained teachers to staff the schools. For the past four years Indiana University has worked closely with several of these school districts in developing a field-based teacher education program to prepare new teachers for these schools. The student will spend two summers on graduate course work, with the time in between spent as an intern in an alternative public school. By the time the program is completed, teachers will have demonstrated their ability to do the following: (a) conceptualize the kind of teachers they want to become and develop and complete a program of self-development designed to move them toward that, (b) develop a comprehensive rationale for alternative education and be able to describe and critique the types of alternatives in operation today, (c) obtain a field internship, (d) complete an internship in an alternative public school, (e) create and implement a new educational component for the public school district in which they are interning, (f) participate in the professional development of future interns, and (g) obtain a position in public education. The program also has a number of important objectives related to creating and maintaining new alternative schools and programs. (A list of cooperating public schools, an illustration of a field-based center, a program description, and an external program evaluation are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Nontraditional Education, Preservice Teacher Education, Public Schools, School Districts

Sommers, Tish; And Others (1986). Death and Dying: Staying in Control to the End of Our Lives. This "gray paper" addresses the concerns of older women regarding their control over death and dying. It is based on the observation that older women are devalued by society on account of both their age and gender, and hence are likely to be impoverished and vulnerable as they approach death. The paper begins by examining the legal, ethical, and economic consequences of the medical profession's control over the right to die. A review follows of court cases which have established the legal principle that a competent terminally ill patient can refuse or terminate life-sustaining treatment at any time. "Living wills" and other advance directives to help women stay in control of their bodies are then discussed, along with the conflicts and contradictions inherent in the subject of death and dying–specifically, the danger of "right to die" directives degenerating into a license for euthanasia. The paper concludes with principles to help women navigate the complex legal, medical, and emotional minefield of death and dying, and with recommendations for personal planning, legislative support, public education, and new alternatives for terminal care. A list of publications and organizations is included. Descriptors: Aging (Individuals), Court Litigation, Death, Ethics

Graham, Peter S. (1982). Technical Services Costs in ARL Libraries. Kit 89. Designed to assist library managers in conducting effective cost studies, this document provides a summary of the data for the 81 member libraries which responded to a survey of technical services cost studies conducted by the Association of Research Libraries (ARL) in April 1982, and seven reports of such studies. These reports, which range from terse statements of overall costs to detailed time-and-motion studies, with examples of both top-down and bottom-up approaches, are as follows: (1) "Cataloging, Binding, and Processing Costs 1980/81," Syracuse University; (2) "The Year's Work: Resources Used, Benefit/Cost, 1981," University of Maryland; (3) "Projected Cost Study for Technical Services for 1982-83; Unit Activities, Statistics, and Automation Developments; and Staff Costs by Unit," University of Kentucky; (4) "Statement of Desired Data for Determining the Costs of Maintaining RL Catalogs, 1976-77," Research Libraries Group; (5) "Technical Service Division Work Assignments Staffing Profile, 1978," Washington State University; (6) "Cost Study of the Central Technical Services Department; Cost of the Serials Currently Received Process, 1980," Cornell University; and (7) "Review of Collection Policy Alternatives, 1980," New York Public Library. Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Costs, Library Expenditures, Library Research

Royer, James M.; Carlo, Maria S. (1991). Assessing the Language Acquisition Progress of Limited English Proficient Students: Problems and a New Alternative, Applied Measurement in Education. Measures of linguistic competence for limited-English-proficient students are discussed. The results for 134 students in grades 3 through 6 from a study of the reliability and validity of the Sentence Verification Technique tests as measures of listening and reading comprehension performance in native languages and English are reported. Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Comparative Testing, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students

Lugo, Delia E. (1978). A New Alternative for the Training of Personnel for Handicapped Children. The author describes a Caribbean project to pool professional resources for an international collaboration in the training of personnel for handicapped children. It is reported that the Institute was developed as a technical and professional arm of the Caribbean Association on Mental Retardation and that it functions as an itinerant, evolving, structure. The Institute is noted to constitute an alternative to meet the needs of trained personnel in small, developing countries of diverse cultures and languages which are geographically close and have common needs. Descriptors: Developing Nations, Foreign Countries, Handicapped Children, Higher Education

Madsen, Harold S. (1976). New Alternatives in EFL Exams or, "How to Avoid Selling English Short", English Language Teaching Journal. Efforts to better the school Leaving Exams in English of a large African state lead to the belief that schools should do away with them completely. Where this cannot be done, a thorough, systematic evaluation of reading comprehension, structure, and usage should be combined with productive integrative evaluation.   [More]  Descriptors: English (Second Language), Language Instruction, Language Skills, Language Tests

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 20 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Janine K. Bethscheider, Brooklyn New York City Board of Education, Lynda Miller, Keith H. Fukumoto, David Court, O. Rebecca Hawkins, Eleanor Nyquist Patton, New York Center for Urban Education, Joslyn L. Green, and Edward L. Katzenbach.

Miller, Lynda (1993). What We Call Smart: A New Narrative for Intelligence and Learning. School-Age Children Series. Noting that the collective stories of special education have grown out of a tradition that, by its nature tends to perpetuate problems, this book examines such narratives and how they influence thinking and belief about intelligence and learning. It begins by examining how the current story of intelligence developed and illustrates some of the consequences of accepting the concept of intelligence as anything that can be measured or quantified–and defined as normal. The second chapter discusses how deviation from what is considered normal came to be defined as learning disability, and therefore emerged as parallel to the concept of intelligence. An alternative approach to learning, one founded on describing people's qualities rather than measuring quantities thought to represent their thinking and actions, is narrated in chapter 3. Chapter 4 replaces the idea of intelligent with smart, and describes eight ways of being smart, which use the broad concept of multiple intelligences as guidelines. Two tools are presented in chapter 5, which individuals can use to describe how they themselves are smart and how other people are smart. The last chapter describes two programs, Project Smart and Project ABLE, which are a practical expression of the new alternative to learning. Contains 93 references. Descriptors: Attitude Change, Competence, Educational Attitudes, Educational History

Green, Joslyn L., Ed. (1987). The Master's Degree: Jack of All Trades. The master's degree is discussed in seven papers written by academic officers serving state coordinating and governing boards. In "Toward a New Paradigm," Judith S. Glazer considers changes in the master's degree and suggests that the degree is changing to meet student needs, the job market, and external standards. Martine F. Hammond's paper, "Program Review: One Step in the Right Direction," considers a new course numbering system and graduate program review in Kansas. In "Stronger Requirements and a New Alternative," Robert R. Appleson discusses new Tennessee standards for the master's degree and a new kind of degree (the "Professional Supplement"). Self-evaluation of master's programs is emphasized Joyce V. Lawrence in "The Additive Fallacy and an Added Concern." Ways that the country, states, and colleges can improve the master's degree are discussed by Robert J. Barak in "A Skeleton in the Closet," which also identifies evaluation methods and criteria. In "The Strain of Quality," Jules B. LaPidus outlines changes in graduate education since World War II and problems in achieving educational quality. Also presented are a concluding essay by Joslyn L. Green and an appendix by C. W. Minkel and Mary P. Richards, "Components of Quality in Master's Degree Programs."   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Standards, College Programs, College Role, Degree Requirements

Hawkins, O. Rebecca, Ed. (1987). 1987-92 Master Plan: Prince George's Community College. This annual update of the Prince George's Community College (PGCC) Master Plan represents an effort by the college to provide a framework for meeting the postsecondary educational needs of Prince George's County. Following a brief introduction highlighting PGCC's goal to increase its role in the county's economic development, PGCC's planning process is explained. The next section looks at PGCC's mission; its commitment to academic excellence, open admission, educational access, affordability, program diversity, and county development; and its instructional and support programs. Next, an overview is provided of PGCC's current enrollment situation, including information on the college's market share, enrollment trends, student demographics, goals, attendance patterns, and program choices. The next section considers some of the factors external to the college that will affect its future, including the decline in high school graduates, the trend toward an older county population, county economic development activities, increasing competition among higher education institutions, and the availability of financial aid. Finally, the report presents the following goals and priorities of PGCC: (1) increase the college's share of the high school market and adult continuing education, credit and noncredit market over the period fall 1988 through fall 1990; (2) increase the retention rate of students; (3) improve transportation to PGCC's Largo Campus; (4) increase credit and noncredit enrollments through entrepreneurial efforts; (5) increase funding from private and public sectors; (6) seek alternative funding for new or upgraded facilities; (7) improve marketing efforts; and (8) enhance affirmative action.   [More]  Descriptors: College Planning, Community Colleges, Educational Trends, Enrollment Influences

Katzenbach, Edward L. (1968). Planning Programming Budgeting Systems: PPBS and Education. Continuous change in education is requiring educational administrators to plan for the distant future with as much precision as they now do for the immediate future. Recently, major advances in the planning-budgeting process have become available to educators in the form of PPBS. Fiduciary budgets, which have been used in most schools since the early 1900's, have the following problems: (1) They are incremental budgets relying heavily on what was done the previous year, (2) they develop meaningless comparative data, (3) they do not reveal the source of funds, and (4) they are written only for the following year. Program budgeting, on the other hand, offers the administrator the opportunity to design a long term plan for creative instruction. PPBS delineates program integration and highlights alternatives in a new way by aligning objectives and costs. PPBS differs from present budgeting procedures in that it (1) compels administrators to give some thought to alternatives, (2) stresses the significance of minor costs over a long period of time, (3) helps relate the cost of a program to its merits, and (4) links teacher aids, supporting activities, research, and development to subject matter in terms of time and cost.   [More]  Descriptors: Budgets, Educational Administration, Educational Planning, Program Budgeting

Court, David (1972). Dilemmas of Development: The Village Polytechnic Movement as a Shadow System of Education in Kenya. Discussion Paper No. 156. Despite rising sentiment, the decision to "de-school" society seems premature unless it derives from a comparative empirical assessment of school and nonschool educational programs' relative contributions to national goals. One of many new alternative systems, Kenya's village polytechnics (low-cost primary training centers in rural areas) are widely perceived to be alleviating unemployment and manifesting self-help. The polytechnic is significant as an ideological movement whose essence is an attempt to break away from conventional concepts and to develop types of training rooted in practical local and individual needs, conveying a sense of individual purpose and a capacity for continuing self-instruction. Data are used to illustrate the movement's achievements, problems, and potential in the task of national development–its major problems have derived from the pervasiveness of the ethic of formal schooling; part of the movement's achievement and much of its potential lie in the extent to which the polytechnics have nevertheless exemplified significant new principles of education: flexibility, availability, individualization, and relevance. The data suggest, however, that the alternative system must await modifications in the present social structure linking schooling and wage incentives before it can have extensive impact on educational philosophy and practice in Kenya.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Education, Career Development, Community Attitudes, Community Responsibility

Patton, Eleanor Nyquist; Patton, Bobby R. (1985). Gender Significance of Dress in the Organizational Setting. Which, when, and how elements of a fashion are adopted by a particular person or group are indicators of how that person or group is viewed by others within their society. For men who have worked in business and commerce, the clothing has changed little since the rise of the commercial middle class. The business suit remains unaltered because its very stability of form suggests a stability of the business world. When women in greater numbers entered business jobs and after the rule books about women's professional dress were published, the suit became the most important part of the wardrobe. In general, women's clothing has tended to be much more idiosyncratic than men's. While it reflected a general style of the community, it also had more leeway to reflect the individuality of the wearer. Although the skirted suit helped to blend the professional woman with the professional man on a visual level, the wives and daughters of these professional men are changing wardrobes to new alternatives, thus making the women coworkers dressed in this professional uniform appear dowdy and, consequently, less attractive. A woman's dressing for business is an enormous balancing act. She can easily be criticized for being unfeminine or criticized for being dressed "unprofessionally." Since clothing symbols convey visually the structure of the whole society and bespeak the human social order, a further exploration into the rules that govern this nonverbal system seem to be a valuable topic for further exploration. Descriptors: Business, Clothing, Clothing Design, Communication Research

Lang, Susan M. (1992). Creating a Community of Learners Using Hypertext. A HyperCard stack can be a primary computer-assisted instructional element in a freshman literature course and in an upper division "period" course. These stacks provide new alternatives for conventional classroom activities and add some possibilities not available in the traditional classroom setting. The stack for the freshman course contains course information, cards on literary genres, quizzes, and on-line journal assignments. The stack is also used to integrate the notion of literary theory into the course content, to provide additional activities for the poetry and drama units, and to assist students in writing essays. A proposed large-enrollment course in the 19th century novel would use computers as a teaching aid for out-of-class activities. The majority of class time would be devoted to class discussion and lecture, with group activities and/or in-class writing occupying only a small percentage of the time. The course could be largely paperless–with materials being turned in on disk–thus encouraging revision of ideas and integration of various ideas and texts. In many ways, the conceptual challenges in programming with HyperCard are not all that different from those involved in print-based composing, although primary differences involve allowing for variable paths through the text, and for reader interaction. Hypertextual applications encourage increased contact between students and promote the sense of community that classrooms so often lack.   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Environment, Computer Assisted Instruction, Course Content

Bethscheider, Janine K. (1992). Internal-Structure Analysis of Analytical Reasoning Worksamples 244 D and E and Development of Form H. Technical Report 1992-1. Standard and experimental forms of the Johnson O'Connor Research Foundations Analytical Reasoning test were administered to 1,496 clients of the Foundation (persons seeking information about aptitude for educational and career decisions). The objectives were to develop a new form of the test and to better understand what makes some items more effective than others. Internal-structure analysis of the 26 new items indicated that all but 3 could be regarded as at least adequate on the basis of their correlation with current standard forms of the test. Thirteen items with the highest item-total correlations or the greatest contribution to overall test reliability were selected for the new test version. The relationships of six item characteristics to item quality and item difficulty were investigated, and these suggest that the clarity of the conceptual features among the words or concepts contributes more to item quality than any of the features studied. Suggestions are made for developing a new alternative form of the Analytical Reasoning test, drawing on the items not included on this revised version. Two tables present study data, and three figures illustrate the discussion.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Aptitude Tests, Career Choice, Comparative Testing

Redman, John M. (1990). Metro/Nonmetro Funding Allocation Under Title II-A, Job Training Partnership Act. The Job Training Partnership Act (JTPA) Title II-A program is the main federal effort to enhance the employability of economically disadvantaged youths and adults. The amount of funds allotted to each state is determined by a formula that allocates two-thirds of available funds on the basis of relative unemployment levels and one-third on the basis of the number of disadvantaged persons in each state. This allocation formula produced a rise in expenditures per member of the civilian labor force and expenditures per disadvantaged person in Service Delivery Areas (SDA's) in rural areas between July 1987 and June 1988. This was due to the unusually high unemployment rates experienced by many nonmetro areas at the time. The current regional distribution of JTPA funds was compared with distributions obtained from application of two alternative formulas using measures of economic disadvantage (unweighted and weighted by the poverty rates). Application of either alternative produced a substantial reallocation of program activity among regions. Under either alternative, however, the New York/New Jersey region would receive substantially larger allocations, and the industrial Midwest would experience a substantial reduction. If one used the number of disadvantaged living in the SDA as the sole allocation criterion, metro SDA's enjoyed a measurable increase in JTPA funds. Metro/nonmetro differences in unemployment rates have been steadily diminishing. Therefore, nonmetro areas may be better served during the 1990's by a new funding formula emphasizing poverty rates more than unemployment rates. The report contains numerous tables.   [More]  Descriptors: Economically Disadvantaged, Employment Programs, Federal Programs, Financial Support

President's Commission on School Finance, Washington, DC. (1972). Schools, People, & Money. The Need for Educational Reform. Final Report. This report presents proposals for action at every level of government and in every kind of institution that affects and comprises American elementary and secondary education. Part 1, Summary of Findings and Recommendations, deals only with the major issues. Part 2, The Commission's Final Report, contains 15 chapters, as follows: I. Introduction; II. Background; III. The Need for Reform; IV. Preeminence of State Government in Education; V. Full State Funding of Elementary and Secondary Education; VI. Strengthening State Administration of Education; VII. Saving the Inner City Schools; VIII. Toward Early Childhood Education; IX. The Public Interest in Nonpublic Education; X. Making the Educational System Accountable; XI. Relating Education to Career Needs; XII. Creating School Districts with Balanced Resources; XIII. Exploring Innovations and New Alternative; XIV. Asserting the National Interest in Education; and XV. Concluding Comments. Part 3 contains supplementary comments and dissents. Part 4 is comprised of nine appendixes, as follows: A. Executive Order Establishing Commission on School Finance; B. Listing of Organizations that Submitted Statements to Commission; C. Listing of Contractor and Commission Staff Studies (28 studies in 34 volumes); D. State Boards of Education and Chief State School Officers; E. Number of School Districts Operating Schools by State and Type of District; F. Relative Educational Need Index; G. Estimate of Pre-Primary Enrollment; H. Alternative Bases for Federal Incentive Grants for Full-State Funding; and I. Federal Funding of Report Recommendations.   [More]  Descriptors: Early Childhood Education, Educational Change, Educational Economics, Educational Finance

Fukumoto, Keith H. (1991). The Department of Education Budget: Selected Issues in Public School Funding and Accountability. Report No. 6. Findings of a study on public school funding and accountability in Hawaii are presented in this report. Following a detailed executive summary, the introduction outlines the state legislative history that mandated the study and describes the study's design. Chapter 2 discusses the different methods used to analyze educational expenditures and their limitations, proposes alternatives, and identifies their assumptions. Chapter 3 examines the relationship between inflation and current operations expenditures and describes the changes in expenditures over time. It also discusses the theory and design of a school price index to measure the effects of inflation on elementary/secondary operations. The fourth chapter compares the amounts expended for such functions as administrative support and those expended directly for students, such as classroom teaching. The utility of the current accountability system and the equity of resource-allocation procedures used by the State Department of Education (DOE) are assessed in chapters 5 and 6. Chapter 7 analyzes the current program structure of the department of education and presents two new alternatives. Seventeen tables are included. Appendices contain lists of expenditures and comments by the DOE on the study findings. A summary and endnotes accompany each chapter.   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Cost Indexes, Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education

Beach, Robert H. (1982). Evaluator Concerns Arising from Ideal Displacement. The making of a decision implies a choice between competing alternative solutions. In a decision-making context including multiple criteria, the criteria (or their related variables) are placed in relation to each other. This provides a comparison to some fixed point or origin, reducing the problem to one which can be solved by optimization as in the single criterion condition. It is also possible to conceive an "ideal" solution either as an independent entity or as a composite of the "best" aspects of all the criterion variables. The conceptualization of the "ideal" in a set of alternatives under decision is important because the addition of an extraneous alternative into the decision set can expand the decision boundary, thereby changing the location of the ideal point and reordering the alternatives relative to the ideal point. The demonstration that a non-optimal alternative can be made optimal by the addition of a new alternative into the strategy set (Ideal Displacement) can be made. For school evaluators and decision makers, these abstract issues become of pragmatic concern because the process by which alternatives are developed, weighted, and selected will have a profound impact on the quality of the decision made.   [More]  Descriptors: Decision Making, Evaluation Criteria, Evaluative Thinking, Evaluators

Weeren, Jan van (1987). Testing Pronunciation. Pronunciation is an important subskill in second language learning, therefore worth evaluating. Its quality is commonly assessed in a global, impressionistic way by having learners read aloud. While this allows comparison of examinees' skills, ability to read aloud is a possible confounding variable. An alternative method is to have learners read texts in which only marked elements are judged as correct or incorrect. A study compared the reliability and validity of this and the traditional, holistic method. Pronunciation tests were developed for Dutch learners of French and German that incorporated words in which pronunciation errors occur frequently. The tests were administered to secondary school students (German=26, French=19). Recorded readings were rated in both the traditional way and with the marked-item method by teacher panels to measure reliability. Results suggest the new method can improve evaluation. To determine validity, another experiment simulated regular teacher evaluation of student pronunciation in French by comparing ratings of pronunciation in: (1) spontaneous speech; (2) a traditional read-aloud text; and (3) marked items in a read-aloud text. These results suggest that (3) marked items in a read-aloud text. These results suggest the new alternative is not preferable to traditional, holistic rating because it can not give a general impression of pronunciation quality. Further research is recommended.   [More]  Descriptors: Applied Linguistics, Comparative Analysis, Error Analysis (Language), Error Patterns

Center for Urban Education, New York, NY. (1972). Satellite Academies Program: Interim Report. The Satellite Academies Program (SAP) is considered to have the following central goals: (1) to improve basic academic skills, (2) to provide meaningful work experience, (3) to develop a job-related educational curriculum, (4) to involve the business community in education, (5) to increase student involvement in the educational process, and (6) to create social support mechanisms for students. SAP was conceived as a viable alternative to the New York City Board of Education's Cooperative Education Program, one that would provide a more comprehensive educational experience and that would satisfy the needs of disadvantaged urban students. It is the product of an agreement among three city organizations. Each of these three bureaucracies took on a section of the program for themselves. City Planning agreed to locate sites and to act as an administrative resource base for the program. Human Resources Administration agreed to supply counselors. The Board of Education agreed to supply teachers and act as a manager of operations. The areas of control were well defined for the members of the "troika," and this arrangement created a problem for the SAP Administration: the Administration had no real autonomy. Owing to tight restrictions on funds, the program had little room to maneuver.   [More]  Descriptors: Basic Skills, Curriculum Development, Employment Qualifications, High Schools

New York City Board of Education, Brooklyn, NY. Bureau of Curriculum Development. (1983). Human Biology: Experimental. Education is a process of adapting to change, and the rate of change is especially rapid in science today. This curriculum in human biology is an alternative to the New York State courses in general and Regents biology, and it has been designed to focus on change from the standpoint of the urban student. It is designed to provide students with experiences which encourage the development of critical thinking and problem solving skills. The laboratory experiments are intended to involve students in both the evaluation and interpretation of data, as well as in the design of their own experiments. The document is divided into nine broad units, with each unit divided into a series of sub-topics. The major topics covered are: (1) Why Do We Study Biology? (2) Of What Are Living Things Made? (3) How Do Our Cells Get the Materials They Need? (4) How Do Our Bodies Carry Out Their Activities? (5) Why Do We Behave the Way We Do? (6) How Can We Prevent and Control Disease? (7) How Do Humans Reproduce? (8) What Determines What We Are? and (9) How Have Living Things Changed? Each page in the guide is divided into four columns: (1) performance objectives; (2) basic understandings; (3) suggested procedures; and (4) enrichment activities. Descriptors: Biology, Blood Circulation, Disease Control, Ecology

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 19 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Mary M. Kennedy, Robert W. Evans, Daniel Shugurensky, Arthur G. Wirth, Richard D. Carter, Pamela S. Pease, Maxine Stolar, Susan A. Hellweg, Jayne DeLawter, and Mary T. Kim.

Stolar, Maxine (1984). Evaluation of Alternative Programs, 1983-84. Almost 14,000 students in the Cincinnati Public Schools attended alternative programs during the 1983-84 year. These voluntary programs were designed to create racially balanced schools and to provide specialized learning experiences along with traditional academic curriculum. Acceptance to the programs is based primarily on racial balance, but students must also meet skill or achievement requirements for some programs. Evaluation of the 1983-84 programs showed that enrollment was 54% Black, 43% White, and 3% other races, that 31 of the 42 alternative programs met the school system's racial balance guidelines, and that with the addition of two new alternative program sites, enrollment increased by 503 over the previous year. California Achievement Test results comparing alternative and non-alternative students showed fewer alternative students in the below average stanines, approximately the same percentage of both groups achieving at the average stanines, and a larger percentage of alternative students in the above average stanines. Additional test results showed similar gains between groups in mathematics and slightly higher gains for the alternative group in reading. Results of attitude surveys displayed higher positive responses by the alternative groups. Monies allocated for excess teachers and instructional assistants totaled approximately $4,093,368. The non-personnel allocated budget amounted to $249,650. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Attitudes, Desegregation Methods, Elementary Secondary Education

Watts, Owen; And Others (1987). Alternative Senior High School Courses. This study was designed to investigate the effects of the changes suggested in the Report of the Committee of Inquiry into Education in Western Australia (Beazley Report) and the Report of the Ministerial Working Party on School Certification and Tertiary Admissions Procedures (McGaw Report). Special attention was directed to the impact that the reports would have on the continuation or termination of Alternative Upper School (AUS) courses, their integration into normal school timetable and their success in catering to the needs of the types of students taking AUS courses in the past. Case studies were conducted on a number of schools which responded to the Beazley and McGaw recommendations in different ways. These included schools which completely abandoned existing AUS courses, those that kept AUS courses, and schools that partially integrated AUS courses within the normal school timetable. It was found that the new alternatives to AUS courses were not entirely successful in that there was a deterioration in pastoral care and that the most alienated students no longer returned to school at all. In many ways, the most successful compromise appeared to be partial integration of AUS courses into the normal school timetable. A reference list is also provided. Descriptors: Case Studies, Developed Nations, Educationally Disadvantaged, Foreign Countries

Chi, Keon S. (1986). House Arrest: Florida's Community Control Program. This report highlights Florida's house arrest program, a new alternative to prison incarceration viewed as a significant criminal justice experiment. The implementation and operation of the community control program is decribed, specific goals and objectives of the community control program are listed, and a preliminary assessment is offered. Major features of Florida's community control program are described, including house arrest, employment and reparation, and pilot projects to electronically monitor offenders. In an effort to discuss transferability of the community control concept and strategies, including electronic monitoring devices, the report also highlights the results of a survey of 50 state corrections agencies on home incarceration programs. The survey results are presented in three groups: (1) states which have experimented with community control programs allowing low risk offenders to live and work in the community under intensive supervision; (2) states which have initiated such programs in 1986; and (3) states which have experimented with electronic monitoring devices as a means of intensive supervision. The report concludes that, after more than two years of testing, the Florida community control program may be seen as an option supplying an alternative to prison incarceration and as a program that may be tested in other states. Descriptors: Correctional Institutions, Criminal Law, Electronic Equipment, Prisoners

Swanson, Arthur J.; Siegel, Lawrence J. (1980). Interpersonal Problem Solving in Preschool Aged Children. This study was designed as a partial replication and extension of the research on interpersonal problem solving in preschool children by Shure and Spivack. Fifteen well-adjusted and 14 impulsive children from Head Start Centers were administered the Preschool Interpersonal Problem Solving test (PIPS) under either incentive or no incentive conditions. This task measures a child's ability to generate alternatives to two interpersonal problems: (1) how to get a chance to play with a toy being used by another child; and (2) how to avert mother's anger after damaging her property. Children in the incentive conditions: were offered one penny for each new alternative generated. Subsequently, children in both conditions were offered one prosocial and one antisocial solution to each problem and asked to choose the "best" solution. Incentive condition children were given three pennies, which they could trade for a toy, for selecting the prosocial response. In a separate session, all children were administered the Stanford Preschool Internal-External Scale as well as behavioral and story-problem measures of interpersonal trust. Contrary to previous findings, alternative solution thinking was not found to be related to behavioral adjustment in the classroom. Incentive effects were found, particularly for girls and for well-adjusted children. Problem solving ability was found to bear little relationship to either locus of control or interpersonal trust. Descriptors: Conceptual Tempo, Incentives, Interpersonal Competence, Locus of Control

Mandel, Jerry E.; Hellweg, Susan A. (1978). A Response to Increasing Faculty Resource Constraints: The Development of Umbrella Academic Programs and New Curricular Aggregates from Existing Instructional Resources. In an era of shrinking financial support for programmatic development as a result of reduced levels of funding from government sources and the concurrent influx of steady state, colleges and universities need to explore new alternatives. Two curricular planning strategies are addressed in this paper in response to this dilemma, one involving the creation of umbrella academic programs under the guise of an interdisciplinary framework, the other involving the reorganization of existing instructional resources into new programmatic aggregates. Examples of each strategy at two state universities are provided. The interdisciplinary example is the Behavioral Science Graduate Program, housed within the School of Social and Behavioral Sciences, at California State University, Dominguez Hills. The second approach is exemplified by a number of curricular programs at California State University, Dominguez Hills and San Diego State University, and it can be applied to any type of program, including a minor, an undergraduate degree program, or a graduate degree program. Their programmatic appeal to students and their cost-effective appeal to the university community are cited. It is contended that both approaches are necessary to retain the development of quality programmatic growth at colleges and universities. This growth is necessary for meeting the needs of students, both in terms of their interests and of their employability upon graduation. Descriptors: College Curriculum, College Instruction, Curriculum Development, Degrees (Academic)

Shugurensky, Daniel (1991). Introduccion al Mundo de la Promocion Social (Introduction to the World of Community Development Education). Apuntes de promotor/2. This booklet presents a discussion that focuses on the relationship between adult literacy and the economic development of a community. The principal characteristics of the currents that have had most influence in Latin American during the last decade are described, and a new alternative for community development education is presented. This alternative is referred to as popular promotion and education, and emphasizes the role of the promoter (community activist) as educator, playing an important part in social development. The promoter must provide educational experiences, helping individuals develop attitudes and abilities that will provide useful results in their own economic reality. The promoter also has the role of helping the community keep its traditions and maintaining pride in those traditions. In this way, the promoter will be helping to develop a self-confidence that is very much needed in order for a community to develop. The promoter must establish a relationship of equality with his or her people, recognizing and expressing that he or she is a part of the learning experience. (Adjunct ERIC Clearinghouse on Literacy Education)   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Basic Education, Adult Literacy, Community Development, Economic Development

Gabriel, Michael R. (1988). New Electronic Media, Popular Reading Materials, and Converging Communication Technologies. In all educational settings, electronic media are pervasive and increasing in popularity because of the speed of transmission and searching of information files. However, in the case of popular media–such as magazines, books, and newspapers–little importance is placed on the speed of transmission, and conversion to electronic books or magazines will probably not occur rapidly. In fact, there is evidence that electronic communication technologies are prolonging the life of popular reading material because of savings in labor and production costs. Newspapers also use electronic technology, and could provide a preferable alternative to television news–a technological medium that trivializes issues and compresses stories to avoid boring mass audiences. Studies have reported the existence of a negative impact by television on academic achievement, in contrast to the positive effects on achievement produced by reading. Yet television is only one of several electronic technologies, and newer media, such as videotex, contain the potential to counteract television effects by turning away from the passive viewing of pictorial images and turning to individual study and contemplation of the written word. (Fifteen footnotes are appended.) Descriptors: Electronic Publishing, Information Dissemination, Information Systems, Information Technology

Evans, Robert W. (1990). Bronson Settlement 1989-90. This report, compiled by the settlement facilitator, documents progress for year six of the 7-year Bronson Agreement. The agreement was entered into to settle the litigation entitled Mona Bronson, et al. vs. Board of Education of the City of Cincinnati. Its major goals were the following: (1) continuing to reduce racial isolation of students in the Cincinnati Public Schools by providing educationally sound and integrated programs; (2) expanding and establishing new alternative schools and programs and informing students of their availability; (3) maintaining an open enrollment policy to improve racial balance; (4) maintaining staff racial balance; (5) using unbiased tests and policies; (6) making improvements in low-achieving schools; (7) facilitating participation in extracurricular activities; and (8) establishing a community-wide task force to elicit support for the agreement. The facilitator notes improvements that took place during the sixth year, including funneling new resources into the low-achieving schools and more involvement of plaintiffs in finding solutions to problems. He notes, however, the elimination of preschool from three low-achieving schools, a decision in conflict with the agreement, and the disappointing achievement gains of low-achieving schools in general, despite huge financial investments. Conscientious planning and administrative decision making committed to the spirit of the agreement are needed to prevent gains from being eroded. The report suggests that the parties involved consider which issues must continue to be monitored and provides recommendations. Nine appendixes containing supporting materials and statistics are included. Descriptors: Desegregation Effects, Desegregation Litigation, Desegregation Plans, Elementary Secondary Education

Kennedy, Mary M. (1981). Three Versions of Follow Through: An Analysis of Yield. Three possible versions of Project Follow Through are discussed to explore the kinds of knowledge that each approach would yield and to describe alternative ways in which the program could maintain the unique feature of federal coordination of research. Versions compared include (1) a federally coordinated research program designed to generate knowledge about the relative advantages of different combinations of Head Start and Follow Through; (2) the version that actually occurred (the planned variation approach), which contrasted a variety of curricula to determine the nature of effects each produced in disadvantaged children; and (3) small, federally coordinated pilot tests of new, alternative instructional techniques. The comparison is guided by a list of seven research/program dimensions, including nature of programmatic variations, utility of the study, likelihood of measuring relevant outcomes, duration of the study, size of the study, inferential problems, and cost/benefit implications of the above considerations. In conclusion, eight arguments weighing heavily against the third variation are presented, and an alternative third version is offered for consideration. In this latter version, the program would continue as before, and the federal government would support research into all major program dimensions (such as the nature and implications of disadvantage, the organization and delivery of noninstructional services, variations in compliance with federal regulations, program implementation, and characteristics of program models).   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Costs, Demonstration Programs, Early Childhood Education

Carter, Richard D.; And Others (1983). Multivariate Alternatives to Regression Analysis in the Evaluation of Salary Equity-Parity. AIR 1983 Annual Forum Paper. The use of canonical analysis and multiple discriminant analysis to analyze equity-parity in colleges and universities is assessed and distinguished from multiple regression analysis. Multiple regression analysis forces the variable weights throughout the salary structure to be uniform, permits only one criterion or dependent variable to be examined at a time, restricts the coordinates to those provided by the variables as measured, and treats qualitative or discrete variables as if they were continuous, assuming ordinality of the numbers used. Canonical analysis and multiple discriminant analysis, both of which define new coordinate systems evaluation of dimensions underlying salary decisions, are multivariate alternatives to multiple regression analysis. These alternative techniques identify new coordinates in terms of the eigenvalues and eigenvectors of the appropriate correlation-covariance or dispersion matrices. Canonical analysis and multiple discriminant analysis were used in an annual salary adjustment process at the University of Wisconsin-Superior. Data for all full-time ranked faculty with a 100 percent appointment were analyzed for 2 successive years. Statistics for the 113 faculty members in the 1981-1982 study and the 111 faculty members in the 1982-1983 study are examined. Descriptors: College Faculty, Correlation, Discriminant Analysis, Employment Practices

DeLawter, Jayne (1990). Teaching Literature: From Clerk to Explorer. Report Series 5.1. Many schools expect teachers to act as curriculum clerks, carrying out decisions about subject matter and classroom management. A promising new metaphor for professional educators is that of teacher as explorer, the leader of an expedition into unfamiliar territory. The image of explorer changes the perspective on teaching goals and roles and frees instructors to consider new alternatives and traditions which promote exciting practices in the classroom. A classroom illustration demonstrates the theoretical underpinnings and practical possibilities of the "explorer" metaphor. In this classroom students first wrote with a partner about a main character in "Dear Mr. Henshaw" to describe what they thought she was like and to jot down questions they had about her. Following that activity, students reflected independently on the written conversation process, noting what they had learned, questions they still had, and general reactions to the experience. By validating and extending student responses, the teacher can increase their sophistication with language and literature, and make the journey into literature an exploration of life itself. (Ten figures are included; 26 references are attached.)   [More]  Descriptors: Childrens Literature, English Instruction, Grade 4, Intermediate Grades

Rogers, A. Robert; Kim, Mary T. (1981). Alternative Modes for Providing Graduate Education for Librarianship in Ohio. Final Report. Noting that a state as populous as Ohio has only two accredited library schools, this report includes a needs assessment for professional librarians through 1990, a resource assessment of available educational materials in library and information science, and an analysis of four alternative approaches: a new program model, a program transfer model, an extension model, and a consortium model. It concludes that the northeast will continue to supply 40 percent of professional employment opportunities through 1990; M.L.S. graduations from Ohio universities will be adequate for Ohio's needs through 1990; school library/media specialists needs can continue to be met; a new graduate library school is not warranted through the 1980's; extension support of the northeast and the central (Columbus) areas by Kent State is not feasible without assistance from Ohio State University; and extension programs in the Dayton area require support from Wayne State University. The report is supported by 33 tables of data, and appendices provide course information, information functions, personnel position definitions, periodical reading lists, and guidelines to library services for extension students. There are 72 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Charts, Community Needs, Educational Needs, Educational Resources

Pease, Pamela S.; Tinsley, Patsy J. (1986). Reaching Rural Schools Using an Interactive Satellite Based Educational Network: Evaluating TI-IN Network's First Year. The paper details development, implementation, and user research/evaluation of TI-IN Network, Inc., the first private, interactive satellite based educational system in the United States developed for public schools and offering a total systems approach by providing both user technology and a wide range of course offerings. An overview of specific technology employed at the 150 receiving sites across 12 states and course offerings (400 hours of in-service teacher/staff training, 18 high school academic courses, student enrichment programming, and tutorials) are outlined. The cooperative partnership between rural public educational institutions and private enterprise is explicated. Research findings based on a year-long evaluation effort focus on variables relative to its use and adoption by students and administrators. Findings indicate primary reasons for adoption are to provide new alternatives and cost-effective ways to increase curricula, increase teacher inservice training, and comply with legislative mandates. Survey results suggest users and administrators perceive TI-IN as "useful,""convenient,""effective," and "good." Students report they like the opportunity for a new experience, the teachers, and courses not otherwise available and 75% indicate they would enjoy taking another TI-IN course even though they were required to work independently more often and to be more self-motivated and attentive during class.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Adoption (Ideas), Communications Satellites, Curriculum

Kahl, Stuart R. (1992). Alternative Assessment in Mathematics: Insights from Massachusetts, Maine, Vermont and Kentucky. Statewide assessment programs in mathematics that have led the way in the development and implementation of new alternative forms of assessment are described and compared. Assessments reviewed are: (1) the Massachusetts Educational Assessment Program (MEAP); (2) the Maine Educational Assessment (MEA); (3) Vermont's Mathematics Portfolio Assessment Program (VMPAP); and (4) the Kentucky Instructional Resource Information System (KIRIS). The four statewide assessment programs have a great deal in common. When the earlier ones (the MEA and MEAP) began, they were innovative, using matrix sampling to administer large numbers of items efficiently. Maine made significant use of open-ended questions. The two newer programs (the VMPAP and KIRIS) took a pioneer role in large-scale alternative assessment with the portfolio approach of Vermont and the portfolios and performance assessments of Kentucky. Some of the lessons to be drawn from these assessments are described. Recognizing the power of testing to influence instruction and curriculum, these states are using assessment as a vehicle for change while refining techniques for large-scale use. Fifteen pages of attachments provide sample questions and some of the forms used to administer the assessments.   [More]  Descriptors: Alternative Assessment, Comparative Analysis, Educational Assessment, Elementary Secondary Education

Wirth, Arthur G. (1981). Alternative Philosophies of Work: Implications for Vocational Educational Research and Development. The traditional systems used to produce goods and services in this country are being challenged by evolving alternatives. The focus of these new alternatives is on the human element in the work force. Studies in adult work attitudes indicate that a more humanistic system is needed to promote productivity. Inherent in the human condition is the need for some degree of control over the activities in which one engages. To meet this need, the new system of sociotechnical management allows workers to share in the control of their work activities and, in part, the destiny of their employing organization. This system was introduced in the Volvo plant in Sweden, where 15-20-member crews replaced the traditonal assembly line which had become outmoded as workers became more and more educated. Another example of humanizing formerly bureaucratic and autocratic management systems is seen in the Norwegian Merchant Marine, where very highly educated crews are needed to control the sophisticated equipment used on oil tankers. In the Merchant Marine, officers' special privileges have been lessened and more participation in management is being accepted by the crew. In recent months, General Motors has committed billions of dollars to redesign plants and involve employees in quality circles in an effort to increase productivity and reduce shoddy work. It is hoped that the industry of the future will become both more productive and more human through sociotechnical methods.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Automation, Education Work Relationship, Employee Attitudes

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 18 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gilbert A. Jarvis, Elizabeth K. Minnich, Virginia Thompson Franklin, Washington Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Donald P. Riley, Patricia Hennings, Edward S. Cobb, Timothy H. Little, Washington National School Boards Association, and Stephen K. Bailey.

Office of Educational Research and Improvement (ED), Washington, DC. (1989). Library Programs (HEA Title II-D). College Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program. Abstracts of Funded Projects, 1988. Technological advancement in academic library resources sharing, networking, and information transfer have developed dramatically in the past decade, with institutions (including nonacademic libraries) finding themselves hard pressed to acquire the resources necessary to institute or otherwise improve their networking capabilities. Further, these new developments have posed new problems that need to be researched in depth and new alternatives that need to be tested. To assist in meeting these needs, Congress enacted the College Library Technology and Cooperation Grants Program under the Higher Education Amendments of 1986, authorizing the Secretary of Education to make four types of grants: (1) Networking Grants for institutions of higher education demonstrating a need for special assistance to participate in library networking for resource sharing; (2) Combination Grants for institutions of higher education in need of special assistance for joint use of libraries; (3) Services to Institutions Grants to assist nonacademic libraries in providing additional services to academia; and (4) Research and Demonstration Grants supporting projects that meet national or regional library needs in the utilization of technology. This collection of abstracts provides information on each of the 46 projects funded in 1988, including the name of the institution, the project director, the grant period, funding for fiscal year 1988, the grant number, and a brief description. Two appended tables present a statistical analysis of the 46 funded projects and a state breakdown of financial obligations.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Libraries, Categorical Aid, Computer Networks, Federal Aid

Cobb, Edward S. (1976). SOS Research: A New Approach to an Old Problem. This paper on a research project on aural learning briefly (1) describes some of the difficulties which define the problem of aural learning; (2) discusses how that problem has been attacked in the past and why the author has elected not to follow that tradition; and (3) outlines an alternative approach. Research procedures are outlined and included (1) obtaining references through several ERIC and PASAR computer searches and conducting literature review; (2) designing a research plan to produce teaching materials and procedures by which visually handicapped students may learn more effectively through listening (immediate target population was comprised of visually handicapped adults–those over 16 years of age, out of school, who have not completed a high school education); and (3) outlining this alternative plan. The final section of this paper describes the following three forms of structural adaptation involved in the new alternative approach to aural learning: (1) Temporal; (2) content, and (3) sequential. A figure showing parts of the preliminary adaptation structure for aural study is appended. Descriptors: Aural Learning, Educational Research, Handicapped Students, Learning Problems

Frumkes, Lisa A. (1994). Silent Movies: A Digitized Video Approach to the Russian Verb. A HyperCard stack using digitized video to provide students of Russian with meaningful exercise in the use of verbal aspect and verbs of motion and position is described. Several problems presented by the Russian verb are defined. Examples of traditional textbook exercises are presented–translations, fill-ins, and picture-based approaches, and are shown to provide inadequate practice in the use of these verbs. A new alternative is suggested: video without an audio track gives students pedagogically sound practice by allowing them to independently generate full sentences to describe what is happening in a scene, while making only minimal reference to their native language. Parsing options, or codes which provide some information to the program about the correct answer, include: identifying the category (noun, verb, adjective, etc.) of each word in the sentence; indication of the cases (nominative, accusative, dative, etc.) of individual nouns and the tenses and aspects of the verbs; and dividing each word into stem and ending. The variety and flexibility of feedback available to students, both error-correction and grammatical, and the scoring capability of "Silent Movies" are also discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Assisted Instruction, Feedback, Russian, Second Language Learning

Holmes, William H. (1985). Technological Support for Community Colleges in America: A Concept Paper. Two-year colleges, comprising America's largest advanced skill training network, are facing an information-handling crisis due to the current technology revolution. Four primary issues must be faced by community colleges if they are to narrow the gap between their educational services and societal shifts brought on by rapid technological advancement: (1) avoiding the obsolescence of faculty, facilities, equipment and curricula; (2) projecting and meeting the dramatic increases in fiscal requirements for equipment and instructional and administrative software; (3) using new technologies innovatively to improve traditional instructional delivery systems and to initiate new alternative instructional delivery systems; and (4) upgrading administrative services in colleges to keep pace with business and government counterparts. In their efforts to deal with these information-age issues and to meet the educational requirements of grassroots America, community colleges need information processing equipment and software in the areas of high-tech applications, vocational and general education computer support, administrative support systems, and technology transfer networks. Descriptors: College Planning, College Role, Community Colleges, Computer Oriented Programs

Hennings, Patricia (1978). [MATCHE: Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education.] Consumer Approach Strand: Housing. Module I-B-5: Procedures for Selecting Furnishings. This competency-based preservice home economics teacher education module on procedures for selecting furnishings is the fifth in a set of six modules on consumer education related to housing. (This set is part of a larger series of sixty-seven modules on the Management Approach to Teaching Consumer and Homemaking Education [MATCHE]–see CE 019 901-967.) Following the module objectives and overview, three units of instruction are presented: (1) comparison of home furnishings (includes three lessons on the unique furnishing requirements of individuals and families, selection of case goods, upholstered goods and accessories, and selection of background furnishings); (2) rental versus purchase of home furnishings (includes two lessons on purchasing furniture for mobility and flexibility and maintaining a sense of individuality while moving or renting home furnishings); and (3) alternatives to purchasing new furnishings (includes one lesson on resources for used home furnishings items). Each lesson generally includes the following elements: narrative summary, suggested activities, and suggested resources (readings). A module pre/posttest (with answer key) concludes the document. (Workshop proceedings relating to the development of these modules are available in the ERIC system as CE 019 896-899; also available is a module on utilizing FHA-HERO as an instructional strategy to expand and strengthen the home economics instructional programs [CE 019 900].) Descriptors: Answer Keys, Competency Based Teacher Education, Consumer Economics, Consumer Education

Collier, Helen V.; And Others (1982). Freeing Ourselves: Removing Internal Barriers to Equality. A Workshop for Women. This manual is for a developmental workshop for 12-18 women that uses didactic and experiential techniques to train participants to make freer educational and career choices. It contains four parts. Part 1, for the workshop administrator, overviews the nature of the workshop and provides information necessary for publicizing, organizing, operating, and evaluating the workshop. A "Schedule Checklist" concludes the section. Part 2, for workshop leaders, summarizes the curriculum and suggests strategies appropriate to the subject matter and to different kinds of learners. It concludes with a resources section of demographic data, references cited, and suggested readings. Part 3, also for workshop leaders, consists of the curriculum, providing an hour-by-hour description of each of the workshop's six two-hour units. Unit titles are Woman and Sex-Role Stereotyping of Self, Devaluing Ourselves, Lowered Aspirations, Power: New Alternative Styles for Women, Building Support Systems and Networks, and Behavior Change and Implementation. Each unit contains an introduction, objectives, worksheets, unit activities, variations in response to unit, and further readings. Part 4 contains all workshop materials to be used or distributed, including suggested wallsheets and 22 worksheets to be duplicated and distributed to participants. An extensive bibliography and filmstrip script are provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Adults, Attitudes, Behavior Change

Riley, Donald P.; And Others (1977). Parent-Child Communication. Workshop Models for Family Life Education. This manual provides leader guides for six workshop sessions for parents who wish to improve their communication and problem solving skills. Session I emphasizes that behavior is a sign of an underlying feeling and that parents should look for signs of feelings in the actions of their children. Session II stresses the importance of sensitive listening and responding. Sensitive expression of ideas is explored in Session III. Sessions IV and V provide a problem solving method and practice exercises which allow parents to develop their listening and expressive skills. Session VI consists of review, discussion and evaluation activities. Handouts for each workshop session are included and home practice exercises are indicated. The manual is designed as a general guide for conducting parent-child communication workshops and as an aid in training and supervision. This volume is one of a series intended to promote the exploration of new alternatives and the utilization of new options in day-to-day living through programs in family life education. Descriptors: Affective Behavior, Communication Skills, Emotional Experience, Family Life Education

Franklin, Virginia Thompson (1972). The Role of the Elementary School Teacher in the Political Socialization Process. This dissertation suggests that the role of social studies teachers should be to introduce new alternatives, values, and ways of thinking in civic education. One thousand three hundred seventy elementary teachers responded to a questionnaire on: 1) background; 2) liberal-conservative attitude; 3) degree of political and professional activity; 4) risk; 5) permissiveness toward political controversy in the classroom; 6) undergraduate role and activism on campus. Analysis of data shows that although most teachers place themselves as liberals on a scale, and participate in educational and local politics, the majority are not willing to engage in discussion of conflict and introduce political reality into the classroom. Instead, old models of civic education are implemented in the classroom. Teachers actively involved in campus politics as undergraduates, however, introduce political controversy into their classroom. In conclusion, schools tend to play a conservative role in the political socialization process, not adequately preparing students to deal with political problems or function in modern society. Teacher education must develop social science teachers who are skilled practitioners in the art of politics, who will feel secure in handling analysis of the problems of the modern society, and who play the role of change agent.   [More]  Descriptors: Activism, Civics, Controversial Issues (Course Content), Doctoral Dissertations

Jarvis, Gilbert A., Ed. (1976). An Integrative Approach to Foreign Language Teaching: Choosing Among the Options. ACTFL Foreign Language Education Series, Vol. 8. This volume on foreign language teaching and learning concerns the following topics: lifelong learning, small-group learning, the minicourse, student attitudes toward foreign languages, problems in secondary schools, humanistic education, curricula in uncommonly taught languages, foreign languages in elementary and adolescent-centered education, continuing education for foreign language teachers, and research directions in the 1970s. The foreign language profession is characterized by the generation of many new ideas and innovations, but there is growing evidence that a significant number of language teachers have a negative impression of what is happening in the profession. What is needed is an evaluation and synthesis of the work of recent years in the development of new alternatives in theory and practice. Teachers need a better understanding of the relationships of many variables which occur in the teaching/learning process in the foreign language classroom. An integration of teaching and research and a model for education based on the concept of lifelong learning is suggested for the foreign language profession. The teacher as a professional needs to possess integrative skills and a viewpoint which recognizes the complexity of the growing body of knowledge in the field. Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Educational Research, Elementary Secondary Education, FLES

Minnich, Elizabeth K. (1995). Liberal Learning and the Arts of Connection for the New Academy. This report explores the connections among diversity, democratic aspirations and goals for student learning in higher education contrasting old ways of thinking and habits with new alternatives. The introduction discusses how the "special" programs and emerging fields, such as American Indian Studies and Deaf Studies, influence university culture and academic disciplines. An introductory chapter introduces principles of the "new academy." Chapter 1 considers reconfiguring knowledge and reexamining old traditions, such as the Greco-Roman and the Euro-American traditions, in the context of the new inclusive educational commitment. Chapter 2 discusses translation across cultural barriers to effect greater commonality without requiring homogenization. Chapter 3 addresses principles of inclusive thinking contrasting assumptions of: the universal/particular, timeless/historical, central/marginal, human/kind of human/ and individual/community. Chapter 4 discusses renewal of educational commitments and discusses: grounded selves, relational pluralism, contextualizing and historicizing knowers and knowledge, mutually respectful dialogues among cultures, and fully participatory democracies. The concluding chapter emphasizes that liberal learning at this time in history is challenged to help people learn how to use their resources to cross boundaries dividing diverse groups. (Contains 41 references.) Descriptors: Attitude Change, Change Strategies, Communication (Thought Transfer), Concept Formation

Franklin, Virginia Thompson (1972). The Role of the Elementary School Teacher in the Political Socialization Process. This research report (excerpts from the author's dissertation) explores the question of whether the role of the school is to socialize the young to our present political norms, or to go further and introduce the young to new ways of thinking and possibly to new alternatives and values. The study investigates the elementary school teacher to discover what he perceives to be his role in civil training, to ascertain his feelings as to the possibility of change, to discover what kinds of risks he will take, and to determine what specific classroom activities he will or will not do. A literature review highlights relevant research on civic training and political socialization of the young–the role of the school, the teacher, the curriculum. An analysis of the data gathered is given in the concluding chapter. The author cites educational needs for the development of an elementary political science curriculum, a less conservative plan geared toward better helping the student to deal with problems of modern society.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Needs, Educational Philosophy, Educational Sociology, Elementary School Curriculum

Little, Timothy H. (1984). Alternative Programs in Teacher Education and Social Studies Methods Course Design: A Case Study. This case study describes the development of elementary social studies methods courses appropriate for two new alternative Michigan State University teacher education programs entitled "Learning Community" and "Multiple Perspectives." The "Learning Community" program prepares teachers to teach school subjects effectively while focusing upon the concomitant need to promote personal and social responsibility among students. The "Multiple Perspectives" program focuses upon teacher decision making, giving attention to decisions regarding instructional design, instruction, individual differences, and group development. Several tension points emerged in the effort to develop methods courses that were consistent with the goals of the two target alternative programs. Conflict centered around differing conceptions of social studies in the schools where students were required to do field work and in problems of designing methods courses within the thematic framework upon which each of the alternative courses was based. How these issues were resolved is discussed, and the social studies literature that provided intellectual models in the design of the two methods courses is described. A topical structure of each methods course is provided. Descriptors: Case Studies, Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Course Content

Boyer, Ernest L. (1977). The U.S. Office of Education, the States and the Private Schools. Private education is crucial to the vitality of this nation, and public policy should strengthen rather than diminish it. In spite of chronic complications, the nonpublic school movement has remained vigorous and strong. Over 5.3 million young people–10 percent of all elementary and secondary students–are enrolled in nonpublic institutions. Because of their freedom and flexibility, America's nonpublic schools have a special opportunity and obligation to push for excellence and to search for new alternatives in education. Nonpublic schools are also needed because of their focus on values and the human spirit. The United State Office of Education (USOE) is determined to maintain and strengthen the great heritage of private education. First, USOE is determined to increase its communication with private institutions. Second, USOE plans to increase the advisory role of nonpublic schools in its work. Third, and perhaps most significant, USOE is determined to see that nonpublic school children are fully served by those federal programs for which they are eligible. Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Federal Government, Government School Relationship, Private School Aid

Bailey, Stephen K.; And Others (1973). Alternative Paths to the High School Diploma. The traditional approach to education and many new alternative approaches have failed to serve the needs of students or to prevent students from dropping out. Aware of the many emerging experiments to keep educational opportunities alive for restless students, the authors propose a complete design, drawing on the resources of local school authorities to provide nontraditional means to achieve a diploma. The instruments of the new design are a Regional Learning Service (RLS) and an External High School Diploma. The direction and policies of the RLS are determined by school institutions. Its purpose is to assist alienated high school age young people to identify their educational goals through counseling, testing, and field-based experiences. RLS also provides a variety of learning options in educational institutions or in the community, both of which will lead to a high school diploma. The External Diploma would be one awarded to a student after appropriate assessment of his pattern of nontraditional study by local school authorities and their confirmation to the State education department that the student had achieved specified performance objectives. The time to earn such a diploma, and the framework within which such a diploma might be earned, would depend on the individual student's needs, abilities, and motivations. Descriptors: Community Schools, Dropout Prevention, Graduation Requirements, Nontraditional Education

National School Boards Association, Washington, DC. (1974). School Facilities Planning. Research Report Number 1974-2. Literature reviewed in this report is intended to help school boards reconsider conventional approaches to school facilities planning. A blueprint is presented for good relationships between decision-makers and architects, explaining a sequence for the planning and construction process and the roles each party should fulfill to work successfully. Information is included about selecting an architect and the job of special consultants. Traditional site development and landscaping are discussed as well as new alternatives. Found spaces, joint occupancy, educational parks, relocatable buildings, and sites that enhance environmental awareness are defined as possible solutions to specific schooling problems. The complex legal problems of joint occupancy are discussed along with examples of existing joint occupancy programs. The final chapter discusses the community schools idea as it relates to the changing roles for public schools and to educational problems of large urban systems and steers the reader to examples of, and possible funding sources for, community school programs. The report concludes with a comprehensive bibliography. Descriptors: Architectural Programing, Bibliographies, Community Education, Community Schools

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 17 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Elaine Allensworth, Edgar Persons, NY. Rochester City School District, Melissa Roderick, Sacramento. California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Brian A. Jacob, Washington General Accounting Office, John Q. Easton, Gordon and Co. Woods, and Northwest Education.

Alaska State Commission on Postsecondary Education, Juneau. (1985). Review of the University of Alaska FY 1987 Operating and Capital Budgets. Submitted to the Governor and the Fourteenth Alaska State Legislature. Document No. 86-3. A review of the University of Alaska's operating and capital budget submission for fiscal year 1987 is presented, with attention to the educational and programmatic impact of the budget request. Information is provided on project components for which funding increments are requested. Included are data to assist decision-makers in reviewing the budget request, including: enrollment data by campus, educational and general expenditures for each unit; certificates/degrees awarded during 1978-1985 for each unit; and general fund appropriations dedicated to organized research. Additional information covers: student/faculty ratios, programs added/deleted since January 1983; and certificate and degree programs that may be underproductive. The criteria that form the basis of funding recommendations of the Alaska Commission on Postsecondary Education are identified: (1) instructional support service activities should be strengthened; (2) renovation and remodeling for life safety and plant protection should be funded as much as possible; (3) all alternatives to new facilities must be considered before new facilities are constructed; (4) the addition of new faculty should be justified with clear and convincing evidence of need; and (5) vigilance concerning duplicative and underproductive programs should be continued. Definitions of college programs are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Budgets, College Programs, Degrees (Academic), Educational Certificates

General Accounting Office, Washington, DC. (1978). Analysis of the University of the District of Columbia's Consolidated Master Plan Development. The consolidated master plan development of the University of the District of Columbia was studied. The effects of upgraded educational opportunities on future student enrollment are uncertain, and the school's enrollment projections appear overly optimistic. It is uncertain how well the planned educational programs will meet the needs of the District, and except for its academic structure, the long-range direction of the University is not clearly defined. The University is not in a position to accurately project its physical plan requirements. Factors that raise questions of the University's future ability to attain projected enrollment are outlined, and the school's forecasting methodology is analyzed. A comparison of the University's cohort forecast with three alternate forecasting methods indicates significant variances. The average of the three methods results in a full time equivalent of about 9,600, or 3,300 less than the University's forecast. Even under tha most optimistic conditions, accelerated growth in graduate enrollment to 2,174, the school could be building in excess of its needs. Renovation of existing-owned facilities is proposed as an alternative to new construction plans. Statistical tables are enclosed.   [More]  Descriptors: Building Plans, Campus Planning, College Planning, Construction Needs

Roderick, Melissa; Bryk, Anthony S.; Jacob, Brian A.; Easton, John Q.; Allensworth, Elaine (1999). Ending Social Promotion: Results from the First Two Years. Charting Reform in Chicago Series 1. In 1996, the Chicago Public Schools (CPS) began an initiative aimed at ending social promotion and raising achievement. The centerpiece of the initiative is a set of test-score cutoffs for third, sixth, and eighth graders, who must achieve a minimum score on standardized reading and mathematics tests to be promoted to the next grade. Students who do not meet the criteria are required to attend a special summer school program, Summer Bridge. Those who fail again are retained in their grade or, if they are 15, are sent to new alternative schools called Transition Centers. This report describes results from the first 2 years of the initiative and identifies many important issues that merit further study. Compared are the performance of students subject to the policy in 1997 and 1998 with that of a previous group of CPS students not subject to the criteria. There have been impressive increases in the number of students who meet the minimum test score cutoffs for promotion. The performance of students with low skills shows the greatest improvement, but the picture is mixed on whether getting students up to a test-score cutoff in one year allows them to do better the next year. Large test score increases in Summer Bridge were not followed by improved performance the next year. Results from the first group of retained students are also not encouraging. Chicago has not solved the problem of poor performance among those who did not meet the minimum score cutoffs. Research steps to examine the effects of the program further are outlined. An appendix contains some detailed test results for first-time test takers. (Contains 25 figures, 38 endnotes, and 26 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Cutting Scores, Elementary Education, Elementary School Students

Thompson, Carolyn (1979). Questioning as a Teaching Tool. The Media Systems Series in Creative Teaching. This two-part learning module was designed to help instructors in making effective use of questioning techniques in promoting the classroom involvement of non-traditional students. Part I identifies the characteristics and uses of three different types of questions: (1) convergent, eliciting questions, which are designed to verify student retention of factual information; (2) divergent, eliciting questions, which are designed to allow a variety of answers and which require the student to defend a position or develop a hypothesis; and (3) probing questions, which are designed to follow up on initial student responses by probing for the correct answer or seeking an extension, clarification, or justification of a student's response. Included in this section is a discussion of the relative merits of three intellectual levels of questioning: the knowledge level, which requires the student to rely upon memory for recalling facts; the application level, which requires the student to apply previously learned information to specific examples; and the problem-solving level, which requires the student to develop appropriate alternatives to new situations. Part II presents a series of exercises to help instructors apply the concepts of questioning techniques to the construction of questions for classroom use. A pre-test and several post-tests are provided. Descriptors: Community Colleges, Creative Teaching, Learning Modules, Learning Theories

Wood, A. W. (1974). Developing Educational Alternatives: Some New Ways for Education in Rural Areas. The evolution and diversification of alternative educational programmes for rural communities are traced from the "shock-absorber" approach, aimed at a sector of society which presented a visible need, toward community education and some of the working principles behind it. The starting point for examining educational evolution is traditional youth work and the growth of youth clubs. Because of the extreme selectivity in conventional education systems, the dropout becomes the preoccupation of the missionary, voluntary worker, private organization, and ultimately of governments. In many countries there is a long history of such structures, frequently scantily equipped and staffed, some of which offer young people recreational opportunities, while others offer shelter. Topics are: urban and rural youth centres; government and national schemes; smaller schemes; and private experiments. The paper concludes that the rural areas of the developing world constitute a clear case of multiple deprivation. Faced with such a situation, there is probably little that education in itself, whether conventional or not, can achieve. Descriptors: Community Education, Developing Nations, Dropouts, Educational Programs

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento. (1992). Approval of the Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District. A Report to the Governor and Legislature in Response to a Request from the Board of Governors to Recognize the Center as the Official Community College Center for the Lemoore/Hanford Area of Kings County. The Lemoore Center of the West Hills Community College District serves the Lemoore/Hanford area of Kings and Fresno Counties–an area lying within both the West Hills and the College of the Sequoias Community College Districts. Jurisdictional problems between the districts prompted the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges to grant permanent educational center status to the Lemoore operation. In May 1991, the Board agreed that the best solution was to recognize the Lemoore Center officially, for three reasons: (1) the center is already built and offers a wide range of programs; (2) it qualifies for educational center status, given its enrollment is in excess of 700 average daily attendance (ADA); and (3) a decision to locate a permanent center in Hanford would have a deleterious effect on the financial viability of the West Hills District. The report presents the eight criteria the Postsecondary Education Commission uses to evaluate all center proposals and describes how the Lemoore facility satisfied these criteria: enrollment projections, alternatives to new campuses or off-campus centers, serving the disadvantaged, geographic and physical accessibility, environmental and social impact, effects on other institutions, academic planning and program justification, and consideration of needed funding. Appended in this report are the Guidelines for Review of Proposed Campuses and Off-Campus Centers (1990 Edition).   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Educational Development, Educational Facilities, Educational Facilities Planning

Northwest Education (1998). Alternative Schools: Caring for Kids on the Edge. This theme issue presents an overview of alternative high schools that serve at-risk students. It opens with an essay on "Learning from the Margins," offering insights on the need for alternative schools, definitions of what constitutes an alternative school, how such schools succeed, and how alternative schools use new ideas to reach students. Four schools are profiled: Mat-Su, a school north of Anchorage, Alaska, which accepts students between the ages of 15 and 21 who are considered at-risk; Portland Night High School (Oregon), which helps students complete their secondary education even if they have already started a job or a family; the Open Meadow Learning Center, a private high school in Portland (Oregon) that uses relationship-based learning to teach life-skills development, preemployment training, peer-advocate groups, and other skills; and Meridian Academy near Boise, Idaho, a small alternative school that emphasizes the importance of each student and fosters a family-like atmosphere. Each profile features information on teaching strategies, the unique approach each school takes to meet the needs of its students, and other alternative school techniques.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, At Risk Persons, Educational Innovation, Educational Principles

Eaton, Judith S., Ed. (1988). Colleges of Choice: The Enabling Impact of the Community College. This collection presents 11 essays which consider a new framework for organizing, understanding, and sanctioning the future community college. In part 1, the following articles argue for an expanded collegiate identity: "The Presence of Access and the Pursuit of Achievement," by Richard C. Richardson, Jr.; "Urban Community Colleges and a Collegiate Education: Restoring the Connection," by Alison R. Bernstein; "Defining and Measuring Quality in Community College Education," by Charlene R. Nunley and David W. Breneman; "The Educational Program of the American Community College: A Transition," by Robert H. McCabe; and "Continuation of Community College Vigor: Strengthening the Liberal Arts, General Education, and Transfer Education," by Richard K. Greenfield. In part 2 , context-defined, quality leadership is examined in: "The Reality and Illusion of Community-College Leadership," by Robert Birnbaum; and "Leadership Needs and Effectiveness: Vision with Competence, Strength with Integrity," by James L. Fisher. Finally, contributors to part 3 argue for a future orientation in viewing the world of the community college. This section includes "The World of Work Revisited," by David Macarov; "Teaching Civic Values and Political Judgment in the Community College," by Leonard P. Oliver; "Positioning Alternatives and New Partnerships," by Richard L. Alfred; and "Community Colleges, Local and Regional Development, and the Drift toward Communiversity," by S. V. Martorana and Eileen Kuhns. Observations and recommendations are offered in a concluding section.  Descriptors: Access to Education, College Role, Community Colleges, Educational Responsibility

Nichols, Charles, Sr.; Persons, Edgar (1979). Job Creation: Implications for Vocational Education Research and Development. Occasional Paper No. 48. Job creation properly researched and developed can help vitalize vocational education for educators, their students, and the community. The migration of employers from the inner cities to outlying areas over the past few years has created a wasteland within our cities. To help rectify this situation, vocational education needs to start preparing people to become employers, not only employees. After researchers identify community needs and resources, development teams can work with vocational education agencies to develop entrepreneurship programs for the area. As we move into a technological society, the impact of preparing people to work for themselves is one of the richest resources of futurism. Another pressing national problem is that resources and people are not in appropriate proximity, such as the mismatch between the supply of job seekers and the existence of jobs. To date, vocational education has concentrated on creating job seekers but not recognized job creation as its legitimate concern. Vocational educators have the responsibility to examine and pursue some alternatives for interfacing with the problem of job creation. These alternatives include new urban renewal, decentralized urban renewal, and part-time job creation. (The authors' answers to questions from the audience of research and development staff are attached.)   [More]  Descriptors: Business Administration, Community Problems, Educational Development, Educational Responsibility

Dober, Richard P. (1996). Campus Architecture: Building in the Groves of Academe. This book describes, defines, and documents campus architectural designs, covering all aspects of campus building and landscape planning in light of today's new challenges–from the updating and revitalization of the existing architectural heritage to the kinds of innovative new buildings required to meet today's and tomorrow's academic needs. The book's subjects include how computerized libraries, changing physical education and recreational needs, and new alternative campus housing affect design; techniques of design rehabilitation, repair, and renovation of existing campuses; design strategies for instructional buildings, research facilities, libraries and information centers, sports facilities, and campus housing; advice for integrating environmental, conservation, and aesthetic considerations within the same project; and how to provide long-term durability and economy in operations and meet project and construction budget targets. Further, the book presents fully illustrated case studies of the best in recent campus designs and redesigns, along with in-depth analyses of why these facilities work so well and how they achieve their goals. (Contains 41 references.) Descriptors: College Buildings, Educational Facilities Design, Educational Facilities Planning, Guidelines

Woods, Gordon and Co., Toronto (Ontario). (1977). School Facility Logistics. A Study for Alberta Education Dealing with School Planning, Acquisition, and Funding Alternatives. Alternatives to current provincial policies and procedures relating to school construction and its funding are identified and examined. The report sets out findings and recommendations in four sections. In the first section, School Facility Planning, Policies, and Procedures, school building is proposed as an integral part of shared community facilities. Various stages in the evolution from simple school house to sophisticated community facility are discussed. Section 2, School Population Projections, recommends the assessment of the most likely economic prospects for Alberta and an economically induced population forecast. A second task is seen as the development of the processes for disaggregation and dimensioning of projected provincial population changes into a regional context for each of the ten regional planning areas. Section 3, Sharing, Acquiring, and Disposing of Facilities, discusses the advantages and disadvantages of sharing facilities with other public organizations and also private enterprise. The various methods of acquiring facilities are examined. In section 4, School Facility Funding Alternatives, four new funding mechanism alternatives and a recommended utilization mechanism are examined.   [More]  Descriptors: Board of Education Role, Capital Outlay (for Fixed Assets), Educational Finance, Elementary Secondary Education

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento. (1986). A Permanent Site for Los Angeles Mission College: A Report to the Legislature and Governor in Response to a Request for Capital Funds from the Los Angeles Community College District. Commission Report 86-14. Prepared in response to a proposal by the Los Angeles Community College District (LACCD) for state funds for the construction of a permanent site for Los Angeles Mission College (LAMC), this report offers historical background, evaluates the request, and presents recommendations. Chapter 1 chronicles the history of LAMC and the LACCD's attempts to secure approval by the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) for a permanent campus for the college. Chapter 2 discusses the proposed facility in light of relevant criteria in the CPEC's "Guidelines and Procedures for the Review of New Campuses and Off-Campus Centers," focusing on enrollment projections, alternatives to new campus construction, community support, enrollment capacity of existing campuses, impact on adjacent campuses, and commuting time. Chapter 3 presents CPEC's findings and conclusions, including the following: (1) LAMC has met most of the criteria in the CPEC Guidelines; (2) certain aspects of the LAMC proposal are compelling; (3) the service area of the college is isolated for those who rely on public transportation; (4) a permanent campus of LAMC should not simply duplicate other institutions, but should demonstrate its uniqueness and effectiveness; and (5) the permanent building currently proposed for LAMC should be of sufficient size to house the existing programs. Chapter 3 also includes the recommendations that the proposed instructional/administration building be approved as a permanent home for LAMC with the understanding that the state not fund additional facilities for LAMC until a thorough evaluation of the effectiveness of the new building is conducted. The CPEC Guidelines and enrollment projections are appended.   [More]  Descriptors: Campus Planning, Community Colleges, Construction Needs, Educational Facilities Planning

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. (1986). Secondary Education for the Future. Report of a Forum Meeting on New Trends and Processes of Secondary Education (Port Moresby, Papua New Guinea, November 17-December 4, 1985). A number of countries in Asia and the Pacific are moving from a predominantly agricultural economy to industrialization, thus creating different expectations of secondary schools. The forum described provided the opportunity to reach certain consensus on the directions of secondary education; develop alternative objectives of secondary education; and identify issues, innovative practices, and growth points. The first chapter of this monograph provides an overview of the concerns and events which led to the meeting and its agenda. In chapter 2, the papers outlining new trends and processes in secondary education in each of the participating countries are summarized. Chapter 3 reports the results of the review of studies made in the light of recommendations of the Task Force Meeting in Indonesia. The discussions on the development of alternative objectives of new models of secondary education are reported in chapter 4. In chapter 5, the implications in terms of development of alternative objectives of secondary education, the identification of issues to be addressed, and innovative practices and growth points are outlined. New curricula, training strategies, evaluation, and instructional materials are discussed in chapter 6, on the implementation of new models. Finally, suggestions for followup activities, to be carried out both nationally and cooperatively, are outlined in chapter 7. Appended are the agenda and lists of participants, documents, and innovative practices and experiments in the participating countries.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Educational Innovation, Foreign Countries, International Cooperation

Rochester City School District, NY. (1986). Data Base, Vol. V, 1985-86: City School District, Rochester, New York. This is the fifth volume in an annual series reporting on the Rochester City School District's Data Base, originated in 1981-82. The recent edition of the Data Base is meant to serve two purposes: (1) to present a core of relevant information about the District, including information on enrollment, achievement and attendance; and (2) to provide an open forum in which items of interest to the District may be reported and explored. This volume is transitional in that it is not fully converted to the new concept of the Data Base. It is an update of the 1983-84 edition, the last full scope volume. This edition provides systematic information which can be used in District Assessment with regard to planning for change and improvement. The information is presented in the following categories: Financial Analysis, City and District Demography (ethnic distribution, enrollment trends, age distribution, handicapped and special needs), Achievement (test scores, time on task), Attainment (graduation, scholarships, placement, test scores), Attendance, Student Mobility, Suspension (short-term, long-term, by grade, reasons), Student Loss, Special Education (comparative enrollment, referrals, categories, conditions), and Alternative Programs. New and revised tables and figures are used to analyze and demonstrate the data in each section. Descriptors: Academic Achievement, Achievement Tests, Attendance Patterns, Educational Assessment

California State Postsecondary Education Commission, Sacramento. (1991). Approval of Las Positas College in Livermore: A Report to the Governor and Legislature on the Development of Las Positas College (Formerly the Livermore Education Center of Chabot College). The Livermore Education Center (LEC), an off-campus center of Chabot College, was established in 1975. In 1986, the South County Community College District designated the LEC a full-service community college campus eligible for state funding of facilities, and in 1988, the Board of Governors of the California Community Colleges approved Las Positas College (LPC) as the 107th college of the system. Although the college was built entirely with local funds, to receive state funds for capital expansion, the California Postsecondary Education Commission (CPEC) must formally review plans for the college, just as it reviews proposals and plans for new college campuses. This report constitutes CPEC's review of plans for LPC and its approval of the college within the California Community College System, making it eligible for state capital outlay funding as of the 1991-92 fiscal year. After part 1 reviews CPEC's conclusions and recommendations, part 2 describes CPEC's involvement in the college planning process and the history of the proposal for Las Positas College. Part 3 reviews the following aspects of the Las Positas proposal: adequate funding projections; alternatives to new campuses or off-campus centers; serving the disadvantaged; geographic and physical accessibility; environmental and social impact; effects on other institutions; academic planning and program justification; and consideration of needed funding which includes projected capital outlay projects for LPC from 1990-91 through 1994-95. Appendixes include CPEC guidelines and procedures for the review of new campuses and off-campus centers; a history of LEC and LPC; and a copy of the LPC master plan educational program.   [More]  Descriptors: Capital Outlay (for Fixed Assets), College Planning, Community Colleges, Construction Costs

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 16 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Vernon H. Smith, Nancy R. Sorrells, Allan J. Abedor, Ann C. Luciano, Chuck McIntyre, Ernest Woodward, Scientific United Nations Educational, Austin. Coordinating Board. Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Allen D. Arnold, and James L. Catanzaro.

Keane, George F. (1971). The Common Fund: A New Alternative for Trustees, Compact. the Common Fund is a nonprofit corporation formed to enable colleges, universities, and independent schools to join together in obtaining professional management of their endowments and other long-term investment funds. Descriptors: Educational Finance, Endowment Funds, Financial Services, Foundation Programs

Woodward, Ernest (1980). CSMP: A New Alternative in Elementary School Mathematics, Arithmetic Teacher. An elementary mathematics curriculum, the Comprehensive School Mathematics Program (CSMP), is discussed in terms of program philosophy, materials used, and the evaluation done so far.   [More]  Descriptors: Curriculum Development, Elementary Education, Elementary School Mathematics, Kindergarten

Luciano, Ann C. (1978). College Preference Survey: A Research Component in Marketing Higher Education. The College of Saint Rose, Albany, New York, conducted surveys about the image of the college with random samples of its students, high school seniors, high school guidance counselors, and the college's faculty and administration. Four similar surveys were developed. The students' surveys had three parts: demographic data, data on the ideal college, and comparison of four area colleges. The staff surveys contained the same sections, but the respondents were asked to respond as they thought students would respond. Based on the findings, four major recommendations were made: the total public relations program of the college should be re-evaluated and strategies should be designed to yield greater awareness of the college in general and to strengthen the college's market position; alternatives for new and/or restructured programs that respond to the interests of high school students should continually be explored; a campus atmosphere that incorporates more of the elements that students believe necessary to college life should be established; and career counseling and job placement services should be made a marketing focus for the college. Specific courses of action were suggested. A copy of the college preference survey for high school seniors is included. Descriptors: Career Planning, Church Related Colleges, College Administration, College Choice

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Bangkok (Thailand). Regional Office for Education in Asia and the Pacific. (1983). New Forms of Pre-School Education. Final Report of a Study Group Meeting (New Delhi, 25-30 April 1983). As part of its program for 1981-83, Unesco convened a study group meeting on new forms of early childhood education. Participants from Afghanistan, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, and Sri Lanka, as well as observers from India, UNICEF, and UNHCR, met to share experiences regarding programs for children from disadvantaged environments and to consider alternative and new forms of preschool education for such children. Chapter One of this document reviews programs, specifically discussing delivery structures; criteria for reviewing national programs; and center, school, and home-based programs. Chapter Two explores general and specific categories of needs and competencies of children from disadvantaged environments, describing children's total development and preparation for school.  The chapter further elaborates the characteristics of disadvantaged families. Chapter Three deals with the problems of reaching children from disadvantaged environments on a mass scale. Criteria for new preschool education models and alternative models of preschool education (namely, child, school, and home-based models) are also discussed. It is recognized that successful implementation of a design requires the establishment of a suitable management system. Appendices provide the text of the inaugural address, the study group meeting agenda, and a list of participants and observers.   [More]  Descriptors: Childhood Needs, Developing Nations, Economically Disadvantaged, Family Characteristics

Slawski, Carl (1982). A General Policy Systems Approach to Organizational Governance. A General Policy Systems Theory is outlined and its application at a university in regard to governance in the face of retrenchment is described. The way that this model of nonrigorous but holistic research supports the Purpose, Target, Results (PTR) strategy and is in turn more useful than either operations research/management or science/systems analysis is addressed. Additionally, Ouchi's Theory Z is elaborated in a general systems theory model. Case material shows how the approach can be applied to problems of consultation between the president and the managerial executive and operating or contact level professionals. The following eight tasks important to problem-solving are identified: realize the problem in the situation, clarify goals, describe trends, analyze conditioning factors, project future development, invent and consider policy alternatives, implement new policies, and conduct ongoing evaluation research. These steps, which comprise the policy systems approach represent a more complete version of PTR, but without the targets. The six major components of Theory Z are as follows: long-range planning, collective decision making, a more equalitarian workplace, reciprocal employer-employee loyalty, collective responsibility, and long-range productivity and company effectiveness. The theory involves a holistic concern for the company and its employees as whole human beings and it attempts to promote holistic relationships among employees at all levels of the bureaucracy. The case study on retrenchment is diagramed in terms of the dynamics. Ways to encourage collective cooperation in university governance are also discussed. A bibliography is appended. Descriptors: Administrative Policy, Case Studies, College Administration, College Planning

Hagood, Henry B. (1969). Community Control of the Schools: A New Alternative. The concept of community control of schools differs from "decentralization" because community control stresses the possibility of the schools becoming an integral part of the total community. When professional educators are coupled with a cluster of special interest groups (e.g., book publishers, realtors, landowners, politicians), they form interlocking subsystems that can be described as the "Educational Complex." These interest groups often challenge one another for relative power. The concept of community control represents reform that would redistribute power outside the complex. The call for community control is interwoven in a revolutionary push by members of the Black City Reservation to determine their own destiny. The crisis in education is one of the community questioning the relevancy of its own existence in the educational complex. Meaningful community control can only come if we (1) develop alternative measures to determine whether stated objectives are reached, (2) devise methods for students to exercise power, (3) redistribute economic power, (4) restructure the school-community relationship, (5) develop inservice strategies for teachers and paraprofessionals, and (6) develop processes for involving all persons concerned in planning and evaluating school programs.   [More]  Descriptors: Change Agents, Community Control, Community Involvement, Cultural Background

Phelps, John L.; Abedor, Allan J. (1986). Microcomputer Applications in Allied Health Education: Some New Alternatives, Journal of Allied Health. Alternative educational applications of microcomputer technology in allied health are discussed, including word-processing software for creation and revision of syllabi, exams, and handouts; database management software for creation of large sets of bibliographic references, storage and retrieval of data on students; spreadsheet software; and graphics software. Descriptors: Allied Health Occupations Education, Cost Effectiveness, Database Management Systems, Graphs

Texas Coll. and Univ. System, Austin. Coordinating Board. (1980). Space Use–Space Needs: The Availability and Use of Public Senior Higher Education Facilities in Texas. CB Study Paper 28. The potential of improved space use as an alternative to new construction in Texas public colleges and universities was evaluated. Space utilization was measured in three ways, each of which viewed room use differently. The average number of hours per week that classrooms and class laboratories are in use on public university campuses was analyzed. Classroom and class laboratories are the two room types most frequently assigned for instruction and most basic to the universities' instructional mission. The percentage of all available rooms on public four-year campuses actually being used for scheduled instruction by hour of the day was assessed, as was the average percentage of seating occupied during scheduled class meetings in classrooms and class laboratories. Classroom and class laboratory student station size (area) in square feet was also considered. The state's five upper-level institutions are discussed, using the same utilization measures and the same data sources. A model for estimating facilities' needs as a practical extension of the basic orientation to space utilization is presented. Descriptors: Campus Planning, Classrooms, College Buildings, College Planning

Sorrells, Nancy R.; Pimentel, David (1981). Food, Energy, and The Environment: Alternatives for Creating New Lifestyles, American Biology Teacher. Provides background information on the interdependency of agriculture and ecological and social systems. Discusses in detail: (1) fossil energy and food production; (2) energy-intensive agriculture and environmental pollution; and (3) methods for developing alternatives. Includes recommendations to conserve fossil energy used in current food production. Descriptors: Agriculture, College Science, Ecology, Energy

Barnett, Lawrence J. (1972). Employer-Based Career Education: A New Alternative, Urban Review. Descriptors: Career Education, Employment Experience, Experimental Programs, High Schools

Kintzer, Frederick C. (1981). Articulation/Transfer Agreements: Alternative Approaches. OECC News, Spring 1981. Approaches to articulation/transfer in several states and some individual colleges and universities are examined. Guidelines and/or policies from state commissions, agencies, or systems of higher education in Rhode Island, Maryland, Illinois, North Carolina, and South Carolina are described. In Rhode Island, a transfer guide presents broad policy for the state's postsecondary institutions and specifies transfer policies and implementation procedures as individually developed by the three state institutions. Six sections of the guide are noted, and it is concluded that the document achieves a reasonable balance between state prerogative and institutional responsibility. A 1980 Maryland policy document recommends, but does not require, completion of the associate degree before application for transfer. The Illinois Community College Board attempts to resolve differences to strengthen the relationships between the university and community colleges. Among the initiatives in Illinois is improvement of business education articulation/transfer. The 1979 statewide articulation guidelines in North Carolina include material on transcripts, revised guidelines on general education and nontraditional education, and paraprofessional and professional education course equivalencies. The South Carolina Master Plan does not assure transfer by completion of an associate degree because, for one reason, only six of the state's 16 technical colleges are authorized to offer college-parallel programs. The plan protects the integrity of lower-division institutions. Course equivalency guides that have appeared as supplements to or in lieu of state articulation/transfer policy are noted, along with agreements negotiated by individual colleges and universities. Descriptors: Articulation (Education), Associate Degrees, College Transfer Students, Comparative Analysis

Weinert, Ronald A. (1987). Construction Management: A Sensible Alternative when Building New Schools, School Business Affairs. Characteristics of construction management (CM), general contracting, and design/build contracting are defined. CM is shown to be a cost-effective alternative to the other project delivery systems. Explains the four forms of CM and provides guidelines for selecting and rating a CM firm. Descriptors: Construction Management, Cost Effectiveness, Educational Facilities Planning, Elementary Secondary Education

McIntyre, Chuck (1975). Regulations for New Colleges. This document proposes specific changes in the California Education Code which would prescribe minimum standards for the formation of public community colleges. The Code regulations would define "college", require the assessment of local needs and preferences before the establishment of a new college, provide objectives for the formation of new college programs and services, present criteria for selecting an appropriate delivery system, require districts to consider alternatives to new college construction for the delivery of the same programs and services, and recommend district identification of proposed sources of funding for both short- and long-term operations. In an appended paper, a state-level role and process for community college planning is proposed. A comprehensive five-year plan is proposed to provide the basis for the Board's legislative, capital outlay, and finance programs, and for apportionment and program allocation and review administration by the Chancellor's Office. This five-year plan would be developed by a Chancellor's Office Task Force, which would be responsible for analyzing all relevant information, identifying short-term and long-term problems, and recommending solutions and policy directions for approval by the Board. The content, time-schedule, and evaluation methods for a five-year plan are discussed.   [More]  Descriptors: College Planning, Community Surveys, Delivery Systems, Facility Planning

Catanzaro, James L., Ed.; Arnold, Allen D., Ed. (1989). Alternative Funding Sources. New Directions for Community Colleges, Number 68, New Directions for Community Colleges. In an effort to identify and tap new sources of funds for community colleges, this monograph presents a series of descriptive articles on the most successful alternative funding ventures. In addition, the sourcebook provides a sense of where and how new ventures have aided two-year colleges and how other institutions might follow in this pursuit. The following articles are included: (1) "The Community College Foundation Today: History, Characteristics, and Assets," by Dan Angel and Dale Gares, and "Reasons for Success," by G. Jeremiah Ryan; (2) "Foundation Restricted Funds, A Special Application: Miami-Dade's Endowed Teaching Chair," by Horace Jerome Traylor, Stephen G. Katsinas, and Siegfried E. Herrmann; (3) "Alumni: Friends and Funds for Your Institution," by Richard J.  Pokrass; (4) "Alternative Education/Alternative Revenue: Contract Training–Public and Private Sector Models," by Raymond Lestina and Beverly A. Curry, and "Media Technology Begets Revenue," by Jana B. Kooi; (5) "Economic Development, the Community College, and Technology Training," by Steve Maradian; (6) "Entrepreneurship in the Community College: Revenue Diversification," by Richard W. Brightman; (7) "A Case for Commercial Development of College Property," by Richard W. McDowell and W. Kenneth Lindner; and (8) "Performance Contracting: Profits and Perils," by Charles C. Spence and Jeffrey G. Oliver. Appendixes provide a guide to key resources and a list of companies that provide matching funds to junior or community colleges.   [More]  Descriptors: Alumni, Ancillary School Services, Community Colleges, Corporate Support

Smith, Vernon H. (1975). Optional Alternative Public Schools: New Partners in Education, North Central Association Quarterly. Article discussed the necessity of options in public education that would answer the needs of each individual. Descriptors: Educational Development, Educational Needs, Educational Opportunities, Nontraditional Education

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 15 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Pamela R. Aschbacher, Wendell Russell, Annalisa Allegro, Edwin A. Young, Dianne Lynne Cherry, Sherrill Hooker, Terry A. Ackerman, Peter J. Stein, Boise. Idaho State Dept. of Education, and Joan L. Herman.

Herman, Joan L.; And Others (1992). A Practical Guide to Alternative Assessment. Guidance is offered on the creation and use of alternative assessment; and a process model is presented that links assessment with curriculum and instruction, based on contemporary theories of learning and cognition. The introductory chapter, "Rethinking Assessment," provides background on the purposes of assessment and the need for new alternatives, plus an overview of key assessment development issues. Linking assessment and instruction is the focus of Chapter 2, which also reviews current trends in assessment. Chapter 3 considers determining the purpose of the assessment, and Chapter 4 reviews selecting assessment tasks and matching them to student outcomes. Setting the criteria for judging student performance is discussed in Chapter 5. Chapter 6 reviews the steps necessary to ensure reliable scoring. Chapter 7 makes the important point that assessment is not an end in itself, but rather a tool for decision making. In this context, reliability and validity of assessments are discussed. There are 26 figures illustrating the discussion.   [More]  Descriptors: Alternative Assessment, Cognitive Processes, Curriculum Development, Decision Making

Allegro, Annalisa (1992). The Assessment of Alternative Certification Practices. Panel Presentations. This panel discussion focuses on alternative teacher certification. Alternative certification is a way of becoming a bilingual education or English-as-a-Second-Language (ESL) teacher without completing a preservice college program. It has three areas: formal instruction, school-based supervision, and evaluation. It serves the purpose of more rapidly increasing the pool of bilingual education and ESL teachers. Annalisa Allegro describes a model of alternative certification in New Jersey. Migdalia Romero deals with a framework for alternative certification. Elena Izquierdo describes the District of Columbia's "Retooling Initiative" for meeting the demands of language minority students. The initiative was aimed at certified teachers with classroom experience and demonstrated competency with the goal of reequipping them to perform new roles. Barbara Clements comments on the discussion of the three panelists, titling her comments "the pros and cons of alternative certification for bilingual teachers."   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education Programs, Elementary Secondary Education, English (Second Language), Higher Education

California State Polytechnic Univ., Pomona. (1978). Curriculum and Instruction: Cultural Issues in Education. A Book of Readings. The 1976 Claremont, California, symposium to exchange and clarify ideas regarding the study and implementation of new alternatives to quality cultural education focused on two main concepts. The first was the concept of transcultural education design; the second, that cultural uniqueness in our society results from the capability to be responsive and responsible to opportunities of having cultural options with more than one defined culture. Fifteen presentations from the symposium have been collected in this book of readings intended for teachers, counselors, curriculum planners, resource specialists, teacher trainers, and administrators. The articles address the rationale, design, and instructional process of transcultural education; bilingual transcultural education; teacher preparation for a pluralistic society and for bilingual teachers; materials evaluation and selection; curriculum development; testing and cultural diversity; and social studies and transcultural education.   [More]  Descriptors: Bilingual Education, Clearinghouses, Cultural Background, Cultural Pluralism

Davis, Barbara Gross (1976). Evaluating Innovative Programs: The Berkeley Perspective. The Berkeley Experimental Schools Project (BESP) consolidated the existing elementary and secondary educational alternatives with promising new programs in the Berkeley Unified School District of California. The program goals involve the elimination of racism, acquisition of basic skills, affirmation of cultural pluralism, and shared decision making. The internal evaluation team provided information to the program director for decision making and dissemination to parents, faculty, staff, and students. The external evaluation team was responsible to the National Institute of Education (NIE), and assessed the impact of BESP on the district as a whole. This paper highlights what has been learned about internal evaluation functioning as a result of BESP. Two general aspects are discussed: (1) the administrative or organizational concerns of an evaluation unit–staffing requirements and location of the evaluation component in relation to the district structure, and (2) evaluation strategies for assessing educational alternatives–selecting the appropriate methodology and determining the successful outcomes.   [More]  Descriptors: Affective Objectives, Basic Skills, Cultural Pluralism, Decision Making

Janssen, K. C. Cole (1974). Matters of Choice. A Ford Foundation Report on Alternative Schools. This report examines the Ford Foundation's efforts in developing and implementing alternative schools to the public schools or in providing seed money to new alternatives designed for public support. The publication begins with a look at the origin of the alternative school movement and then describes several kinds of school alternatives assisted by the Foundation in recent years, such as the Philadelphia Parkway Program, a school without walls; the East Harlem Block Schools, two day-care centers and a private elementary school scattered in three large storefronts in different locations; and the Massachusetts Experimental School System, established as a model for other school systems in the State. The Foundation advocates public funding as the long-term solution to the question of survival for most alternative schools. (Photographs may reproduce poorly.)   [More]  Descriptors: Accountability, Community Schools, Educational Change, Educational Development

Stein, Peter J. (1979). Understanding Single Adulthood. The life styles and life chances of the unmarried include elements of choices. Singles may be grouped and characterized according to whether their status may be considered stable or temporary. A life cycle, or continuum model of singlehood is reviewed, including its different factors, or phases. A new model for singles is proposed–a life spiral model to reflect varying patterns of adulthood. (Life spiral means incorporation of traditional and alternative roles in the life course.) The life spiral is a non-linear definition of the life span, which enables the viewing of individuals who choose alternate paths of adult life. The focus is on identifying the presence or absence of traditional patterns, on the emergence of new roles and on alternative sequences of new and old roles.  The new model incorporates a theory of human needs and an analysis of the ways individuals and groups meet these needs. Descriptors: Adjustment (to Environment), Adults, Females, Males

Marshall, James D.; And Others (1995). The Language of Interpretation: Patterns of Discourse in Discussions of Literature. Drawing on interviews and on the actual language that readers (students, teachers, and adults) use to interpret and respond to literary texts, this book examines the conventions that shape talk about literature in large groups, small groups, and adult book clubs. By looking across contexts, the four separate but related studies in the book raise questions about the usual ways of talking and thinking about literature and suggest alternatives based on new theories of literary understanding. After an introduction, sections of the book are entitled: (1) A Description of the Project; (2) Studies of Large-Group Discussions of Literature; (3) Small-Group Discussions: Alternatives to and Extensions of Teacher-Led Discussions; (4) Adult Book-Club Discussions: Toward an Understanding of the Culture of Practice; (5) Reading and Talking Together: Responses of Adolescents to Two Short Stories; and (6) Summary and Conclusions. Contains 92 references. An appendix provides excerpts that illustrate the application of the coding system.   [More]  Descriptors: Adults, Discourse Analysis, Discussion (Teaching Technique), Literary Criticism

Ackerman, Terry A. (1986). An Examination of the Relationship between Normalized Residuals and Item Information. The purpose of this paper is to present two new alternative methods to the current goodness of fit methodology. With the increase use of computerized adaptive test (CAT), the ability to determine the accuracy of calibrated item parameter estimates is paramount. The first method applies a normalizing transformation to the logistic residuals to make them more interpretable. The second method translates residuals directly into a loss of information statistic. Both methods require a CAT simulation to accurately assess the ability range over which an item would most likely be chosen. Results suggest that the lack of fit in the logistic regression should not be a major concern in developing a CAT item pool. Suggestions for further research are made.   [More]  Descriptors: Adaptive Testing, Computer Assisted Testing, Computer Simulation, Educational Research

Idaho State Dept. of Education, Boise. (1974). A Study of Exceptional Children in Idaho: Special Education Needs Assessment Study. Documented are the results of a 1974 Idaho needs assessment study of statewide special education services for exceptional children which involved 22,020 school-aged handicapped children. The findings include field research related to (1) prevalence of exceptional children in Idaho school districts and communities; (2) services presently available, including Child Find, and services for which need is indicated to meet state legislated mandates; (3) manpower available and adequacy of potential training resources; (4) consumer satisfaction with present services for exceptional children and possible satisfaction with new alternatives; (5) present and alternative finding patterns for special services and educational programs; and (6) identification of legislative considerations necessary to implement training, programing, and finance patterns. It is noted that the needs assessment format applied to Idaho's special education services has replication potential for other states. Emphasized are cause-effect factors operating statewide which will influence planning toward full services for all exceptional children.   [More]  Descriptors: Elementary Secondary Education, Exceptional Child Research, Financial Support, Handicapped Children

Young, Edwin A. (1970). Preliminary Results of a Survey of Psychology Department Faculty and Students Attitudes Regarding a No "F" Grade Policy in Psychology I. A new alternative to awarding "F" grades for course failure was investigated by the psychology department of Los Angeles City College, and initial results are reported in this study. Basically, a "W" grade was given to failing Psychology 1 students in place of "F" during the fall 1969 semester. The "W" could also be selected by students who would otherwise earn a "D." The "W" grade meant no credit for courses, but did not result in a loss of grade points. Conclusions indicated that grading standards were not lowered; and a substantial majority of instructors and students found many positive values in the system, especially a lessening of anxiety about grades. It was subsequently recommended that the procedure be continued. [Not available in hard copy due to marginal legibility of original document.]   [More]  Descriptors: Grades (Scholastic), Institutional Research, Statistical Studies, Student Attitudes

Russell, Wendell (1974). Upgrading in an Industrial Setting. Final Report. The project objectives were: (1) to assess existing industrial upgrading practices in an Atomic Energy Commission contractor organization, (2) to design new alternative upgrading methods, (3) to experiment with new upgrading methods, (4) to plan for utilization of proven upgrading programs, and (5) to document and disseminate activities. A twelve page section of the report is in the form of a separate paper, titled The Validity and Utility of Simulation Techniques, discussing the operation of an assessment center for employee upgrading. A further 30 pages appear to be from a booklet explaining how the assessment center is used for identification of first-line supervisors. Six pages summarize the impact of management practices, training programs, legislation, collective bargaining agreement, and employee mobility on employee upgrading. The final three pages briefly evaluate the success of the assessment center and the opportunity counselling it provided.   [More]  Descriptors: Career Guidance, Employees, Improvement, Improvement Programs

Rawitsch, Don; Hooker, Sherrill (1974). SEA Staff Survey-1974: General Report. The instructional staff at the Southeast Alternatives (SEA) program operated by the Minneapolis Public Schools were surveyed to determine their reaction to the SEA program. The two major objectives of the survey were to obtain staff opinion on issues concerning the program as well as progress toward achieving SEA major goals. The major findings of the report were: (1) more staff members were satisfied with the program at their school than with the total SEA program; (2) many staff members felt that the SEA program within their schools produced a better educational program than provided by non-SEA schools in the following: cognitive skills, affective learning, producing an appropriate disciplinary atmosphere, serving the needs of minority students and students from low income families. Other findings included the impact of funding source on staff morale and the need for an intense training of staff members for each new alternative program.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Involvement, Community Support, Curriculum Evaluation, Low Income Groups

Chickering, Arthur W.; And Others (1976). Problems in the Postsecondary Education of Adults. Accessibility to postsecondary education for adults depends on solving problems of distance, scheduling, advising, and financial aid. Diverse motives and developmental differences in adults must be accommodated in order to provide accessibility. Educational quality also depends on standards that recognize wide-ranging differences among these students, and the approach to standards must both encourage learning and provide substantive evaluation. To do so required developing "standards banks" that define and illustrate: (1) criterion-referenced standards; (2) norm-referenced standards; and (3) learner-referenced standards. Major changes in the nature of work and in the roles and expectations of women have contributed to the growing need for adult postsecondary education. These trends will continue. Systems designed today must recognize current conditions and respond to future changes. A planning inventory is included that provides a checklist of questions for use in comparing existing alternatives and designing new ones. Descriptors: Access to Education, Adult Development, Adult Education, Adult Learning

Cherry, Dianne Lynne (1985). Foreign News in Africa's Anglophone Press: The Effects of the Debate for a New World Information Order. Four Anglophone African newspapers were analyzed to determine whether their presentation of major foreign news was affected by the "New World Information Order" debate: the Western view that media should be free to challenge governments if necessary versus the Third World perspective that the press should be part of an integrated system of nation-building interests. The study analyzed any article that presented a news story from outside the country where the newspaper was printed. Analysis focused on the extent to which Third World news sources, geographic origins, and main topics were used for these items. The results did not demonstrate an interest in "alternative" news sources for Third World news. Neither was there evidence to support the position that Third World journalists demonstrate an interest in non-Western news. Finally, results indicated that similar definitions of "news" exist in the West and the Third World, and that, despite the rhetoric, Third World communicators viewed their press in ways similar to their Western colleagues. Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Content Analysis, Developing Nations, Influences

Herman, Joan L.; Aschbacher, Pamela R.; Winters, Lynn (1997). Guia Practica para una Evaluacion Alternativa (Practical Guide to Alternative Assessment). Guidance is offered in Spanish on the creation and use of alternative assessment, and a process model is presented that links assessment with curriculum and instruction, based on contemporary theories of learning and cognition. The introductory chapter provides background on the purposes of assessment and the need for new alternatives, with an overview of key assessment development issues. Linking assessment and instruction is the focus of chapter 2, which also reviews current trends in assessment. Chapter 3 considers determining the purpose of the assessment, and chapter 4 reviews selecting assessment tasks and matching them to student outcomes. Setting the criteria for judging student performance is discussed in chapter 5. Chapter 6 reviews the steps necessary to ensure reliable scoring. Chapter 7 makes the important point that assessment is not an end in itself, but rather a tool for decision making. In this context, reliability and validity of assessments are discussed. (Contains 26 figures.)   [More]  Descriptors: Alternative Assessment, Cognitive Processes, Curriculum Development, Decision Making

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Bibliography: Alternative News (page 14 of 22)

This annotated bibliography is compiled and customized by the Center for Positive Practices for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include James Zaharis, John K. Hemphill, Li-tze Hu, John W. Miller, Ron Vick, Evans Clinchy, Heather Sidor Doob, Peter M. Bentler, Scientific United Nations Educational, and Seymour I. Schwartz.

Bishop, Donna M.; Griset, Pamala L. (1999). Replicating Detention Reform: Lessons from the Florida Detention Initiative. Pathways to Juvenile Detention Reform 12. This report describes lessons learned from the Broward Detention Initiative (BDI) in Broward County, Florida, a successful detention reform effort that led to attempts at replication. Chapter 1, "The Predecessor Program: The Broward Detention Initiative," explains key factors in BDI's success (e.g., the site was ready, problems were effectively assessed, clear goals and objectives were developed, existing and new alternatives were used, and mechanisms were built to reinforce reforms). Chapter 2, "The Political Winds Shift," examines political events during the years between the BDI and the Florida Detention Initiative (FDI), which included passing the 1990 Juvenile Justice Reform Act, developing a more conservative political environment, and passing the 1994 Juvenile Justice Reform Act. Chapter 3, "The Replication Project: The Florida Detention Initiative," presents issues surrounding implementation of the FDI: sites selected, goals developed, technical assistance and training provided, local partnerships forged, statutes limited options, external pressure for reform limited, goal ambiguity hindered progress, lack of FDI organization at the local level occurred, role of the Center for the Study of Youth Policy in local sites diminished, and data collection and research not prioritized. Chapter 4 "Florida Detention Initiative Outcomes," examines outcomes in three Florida locations. Chapter 5, "Lessons Learned," presents 13 lessons learned through this experience.   [More]  Descriptors: Adolescents, Delinquency, Juvenile Justice, Local Government

Leroy, David J., Ed.; Sterling, Christopher H., Ed. (1973). Mass News: Practices, Controversies, and Alternatives. This selection of readings, primarily intended for a college journalism course, discusses the strengths and weaknesses of the major sources of the public news–the wire services, newspapers, and television. The first part of the book deals with the context of mass news and serves as an introduction to some of the crucial ideas shaping thinking about news and society. Part two focuses on the practice of mass news, discussing the news media bureaucracy and limitations in mass news. Part three discusses some of the controversies about mass news, such as censorship, portrayal of violence, political bias in reporting, and other issues. Part four discusses alternatives in mass news, under the headings of change by the government, change by the media, and change by the people. Part five presents a selected annotated bibliography of further readings. Descriptors: Bureaucracy, Censorship, Communications, Freedom of Speech

Fadale, Vincent E.; And Others (1972). Abortion, Birthright and the Counselor. This transcript is the result of panel presentation given on the implications of liberalized abortion laws for counselors. A new law which went into effect in July, 1970, in New York State presented women with the option of obtaining a legal abortion up to the 24th week of pregnancy. Counselors in New York State were, therefore, presented with new alternatives in dealing with women with unwanted pregnancies. The panel included a gynecologist discussing the impact of the law on the state and a college community; a Newman chaplain reflecting on alternatives to abortion; two counseling psychologists discussing personal reactions to the abortion issue and its impact on a college population; and a black counselor comparing the reaction of whites and nonwhites to unwanted pregnancies.  The problem of unwanted pregnancy presents serious dilemmas to counselors. This panel presentation was an attempt to incorporate a wide range of viewpoints on this issue.   [More]  Descriptors: Abortions, Counseling Services, Counselors, Females

Miller, John W., Ed. (1993). Students at Risk: Pitfalls and Promising Plans. Twenty-four papers are presented, which describe intervention programs and research reports and highlight the efforts of educators across the country to improve the education of at-risk students. Methods of providing quality educational experiences are profiled that range from a program for young children in Illinois to middle level education students in Arizona, to high school enrichment programs in Colorado, inner-city programs in New York, and college programs in Ohio. Topics include dropout prevention, college support programs, broad range social services, technology applications, student goal setting, and dealing with addictive behaviors. The articles are grouped into the following categories: (1) preschool and elementary school students (early intervention); (2) middle school and beginning high school students (emergent approaches); (3) high school students (new alternatives); (4) college students (different pathways); and (5) multi-age, multi-level programs (full range community services). (Contains 186 references.) Descriptors: Disadvantaged Youth, Dropout Prevention, Early Childhood Education, Early Intervention

Lagana, Joseph F. (1969). Gemini 220: An Extended School Day and School Calendar as an Alternative to New Construction. A Feasibility Study. The purpose of this research investigations was to determine whether a student daily schedule and school calendar could be designed to maximize the future utilization of existing facilities in the North Allegheny School District and to determine if the implementation of such designs would be financially feasible as an alternative to new construction. The report provides assumptions underlying the research, describes alternative extended school year plans considered by the district — a quarter plan, a trimester plan, and the Act 80-Gemini 220 plan. The Gemini plan, which was chosen by the researchers as superior to the other alternatives, employs a twin daily student schedule for two separate groups of students within the framework of a 220-day school calendar. The research findings reveal in part that some extended school designs (schedules and calendars) have the potential of maximizing the use of existing educational facilities, the only feasible year-round school plans yet developed involve all pupils attending school for an extended school year and the acceleration of pupils to reduce enrollment, and the extended school year concept will not solve a district's building problems unless the district is static or growing slowly enough to constitute no problem.   [More]  Descriptors: Cost Effectiveness, Costs, Double Sessions, Educational Research

Schilling, Tim (1999). Electronic Money. Thirty years ago a cashless society was predicted for the near future; paper currency and checks would be an antiquated symbol of the past. Consumers would embrace a new alternative for making payments: electronic money. But currency is still used for 87% of payments, mainly for "nickel and dime" purchases. And checks are the payment choice for about 10% of transactions each year. However, the percentage of transactions done electronically is growing dramatically. This growth is made possible by electronic funds transfer (EFT) systems, which move funds in and out of accounts using electronic impulses. This booklet discusses the different types of EFT systems and looks at the future of electronic money. The booklet contains the following sections: "ATM and POS Systems"; "Direct Payment"; "Stored-Value and Smart Cards"; "Home Banking"; "Consumer Resistance"; "Consumer Acceptance"; and "What Does the Future Offer?" Contains a glossary and a list of additional readings. Included with the booklet is a teaching guide that contains content questions and answers.   [More]  Descriptors: Banking, Consumer Education, Economics Education, Secondary Education

Hemphill, John K. (1969). Educational Development. Educational development is a systematic process of creating new alternatives that contribute to the improvement of educational practice. Sources of educational development may be the school itself, colleges and universities, or the instructional materials industry. There are two types of educational development: product development and change support. In product development improvement in educational practice stems from the creation of tools, things or devices, which when used as directed, are known to yield desirable and specified outcomes. The change support approach emphasizes direct intervention, seeking to improve the behavior of those who are engaged in the practice of education. Most educational development is a mixture of these two approaches. The strategy chosen to implement the educational improvement depends upon the relative degree of emphasis on these two approaches.   [More]  Descriptors: Educational Improvement, Educational Research, Instructional Design, Instructional Materials

Vick, Ron, Sr. (2000). Questioning the Use of Alcoholics Anonymous with College Students: Is an Old Concept the Only Alternative for a New Generation?, Journal of College Counseling. The recommended treatment for alcoholism in the past typically has been participation in Alcoholics Anonymous (AA). However, the use of AA on college campuses has not been proven effective. With a new generation comes the opportunity to rethink this approach to the problem of alcohol abuse on campuses and to incorporate new methods in counseling practice with young adults. Descriptors: Alcoholism, College Students, Higher Education

Hu, Li-tze; Bentler, Peter M. (1999). Cutoff Criteria for Fit Indexes in Covariance Structure Analysis: Conventional Criteria versus New Alternatives, Structural Equation Modeling. The adequacy of "rule of thumb" conventional cutoff criteria and several alternatives for fit indices in covariance structure analysis was evaluated through simulation. Analyses suggest that, for all recommended fit indexes except one, a cutoff criterion greater than (or sometimes smaller than) the conventional rule of thumb is required for model selection or evaluation. Descriptors: Criteria, Evaluation Methods, Goodness of Fit, Models

Schwartz, Seymour I. (1977). Energy Conserving Lifestyles: Final Report to the California Energy Resources Conservation and Development Commission. This report examines the broad topic of energy use and its relationship to lifestyles. The emphasis is on three energy conserving lifestyle models: (1) the rural alternative lifestyle; (2) new towns; and (3) energy conserving subdivisions in existing cities. The first chapter presents an introduction. Chapter two examines the back-to-the-land movement, looking both at individual homesteads and communal living. Chapter three examines developer-designed new towns, such as Reston, Virginia and Irvine, California for energy conservation possibilities and lifestyles. Chapter four considers energy conservation in existing communities including: (1) voluntary conservation measures; (2) insulation of buildings; and (3) the microclimate within the subdivision. The final chapter identifies and evaluates obstacles to the wider adoption of energy conserving lifestyles.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Characteristics, Community Development, Conservation (Environment), Energy Conservation

English, Fenwick W.; Zaharis, James (1970). How To Build a Model of Staff Differentiation. A Step by Step Guide in the Development of a Situational Specific Site Model of Differentiated Staffing. This publication is designed for use with local school district staff members to provide information concerning the development of differentiated staffs on the basis of functional requirements. It is quasi-programed to provide stimuli to search for new alternatives to staff organization. After defining the terms, the authors consider the various kinds of organization and the staffing patterns needed in the client-centered school system. Work specialization and the way in which it relates to instructional improvement are discussed. Another section deals with personal orientation to teaching, ranging from extreme task orientation to extreme people orientation, and a model is proposed which would provide a balance between these extremes. The relationship between commitment and performance is also considered, as well as ways of improving team decision making. The document concludes with two group activities and a brief annotated bibliography.   [More]  Descriptors: Decision Making Skills, Differentiated Staffs, School Districts, School Organization

Wu, Robert T. Y. (1999). Moving toward Community Colleges: A New Alternative in Postsecondary Technical Education in Taiwan, Republic of China. As we enter the 21st century, most of the countries in the world are facing three critical challenges: competing in a global economy, reversing the expansion of a permanent and disenfranchised underclass, and developing a workforce with information-age skills. Many educational reform strategies have been adopted to meet the challenges. In Taiwan, community colleges are proposed as an effective measure to cope with such challenges. The traditional functions of community colleges include transfer education, vocational-technical education, continuing education, developmental education, and community service. It is imperative to establish community colleges to carry out these functions while still maintaining the traditional characteristics of community colleges: low tuition, cost-benefit justifiable programs, and community-based learning. A draft of the Community College Act was enacted by the Ministry of Education (1998) to accelerate the establishment of community colleges. However, the theory and practice in designing such colleges must be scrutinized to smooth the inception of such colleges in Taiwan. This paper addresses the background of such inception, the current status of postsecondary technical education, and the planning strategies for the establishment of community colleges. Contains 16 references.   [More]  Descriptors: Community Colleges, Comparative Education, Educational Change, Educational Practices

Clinchy, Evans; Kolb, Frances Arick, Ed. (1991). Planning for Schools of Choice: Achieving Equity and Excellence. Book III–Model Choice Schools: Traditional Organization and Curriculum. This document is the third in a series of handbooks designed to help educators who are considering controlled choice as a possible desegregation method. The document describes the educational philosophy, curriculum, teaching methods, school organization, and grading methods of traditionally organized schools. Four schools in the northeastern United States are presented as examples of this type of education. Three schools stress academic and traditional learning, and one school curriculum specializes in math and science. The schools include the Nathan Hale Magnet School (Boston, Massachusetts, Public Schools); Burncoat Preparatory Magnet School (Worcester, Massachusetts, Public Schools); Bridge Alternative Concept School (New York City Public Schools); and Isaac Newton School for Science and Mathematics (New York City Public Schools). The document also contains a checklist to determine whether schools use a traditional approach. The final chapter discusses some options for high schools of choice and describes a K-12 choice system.   [More]  Descriptors: Access to Education, Educational Innovation, Educational Philosophy, Elementary Secondary Education

Doob, Heather Sidor (1977). Evaluation of Alternative Schools. ERS Research Brief. The purpose of this publication is to provide school officials and others concerned with the concept of alternative educational programs a summary of research pertaining to the evaluation of such programs. Included are an overview of the history of alternative schools, a discussion of the issues and trends associated with alternative schools, synopses of 27 evaluations of alternative programs, and an extensive bibliography. Most of the publication is devoted to summarizing evaluation reports, which were either identified in current periodical literature and/or through a search of the Educational Resources Information Center (ERIC) index, "Resources in Education." Included are evaluations for alternative programs in New Orleans; Philadelphia; Los Angeles; Chicago; Seattle; New York City; Cupertino, California; Grand Rapids, Michigan; Watertown, Massachusetts; Ithaca, New York; Madison, Wisconsin; Beachwood, Ohio; Albuquerque, New Mexico; Hartford, Connecticut; Bellevue, Washington; Oakland, California; St. Paul, Minnesota; and University City, Missouri. Descriptors: Educational Trends, Elementary Secondary Education, Experimental Programs, Nontraditional Education

United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization, Paris (France). (1965). Literacy as a Factor in Development; World Congress of Ministers of Education on the Eradication of Illiteracy (Teheran, September 8-19, 1965). MINEDLIT/3. Prepared in connection with the World Congress of Ministers of Education on the Eradication of Illiteracy (Teheran, September 8-19, 1965), this UNESCO report on literacy as a factor in development focuses on worldwide literacy education and the dimensions of illiteracy, the role of literacy in economic and technological development and in social change and development planning, program costs and financial support, the aims, organization, and methods of literacy work, bilateral aid and other forms of international cooperation, and the influence of illiterates and other segments of society on program success. Alternative approaches and new strategies, links between literacy and other kinds of education, and typical operational problems (adult teaching, staffing, language of instruction, textbooks and supporting materials, audiovisual aids, and evaluation) are also considered. In addition, a tentative assessment is made of past successes and failures in mass literacy campaigns. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Cooperative Planning, Costs, Developing Nations

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