Bibliography: Free Press (page 14 of 14)

This bibliography is independently curated for the The News Coop website.  

Twentieth Century Fund, New York, NY. (1973). A Free and Responsive Press. The Twentieth Century Fund Task Force Report for a National News Council. This report considers the feasibility of establishing a press council or councils in the United States. The purpose of this council would be to report to the public both on the accuracy of news coverage and on threats, real and potential, against the freedom of the press to fulfill its responsibility of providing information to its readers and viewers. The council would be non-partisan and composed of both members of the press and the public. As background to the study, recent attacks on the media both by the public and the government are reviewed. Existing press councils in Britain, Minneapolis, and Honolulu are described in terms of function, membership, and history. The Task Force concludes that although no comprehensive and national press council would be feasible at this time, such a council might eventually grow from regional and city press councils. Recommendations about the formation of such councils are made. Appendices present the constitutions of the Minnesota and British Press Councils and describe the organization of the Ontario Press Council. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Freedom of Speech, Governing Boards, Government Role

Bracy, Pauletta Brown, Ed.; And Others (1995). Sex and the Library. Confirmed by the Research: There is Sex in the Library [and] Detour off the Information Highway [and] Sex in Public (Libraries): An Historical Sampler of What Every Librarian Should Know [and] Mission Position: Censorship in the Corporate Library [and] Hard Cases: Some Issues Concerning the First Amendment's Protection of Free Speech and Free Press [and] Subtle Censors: Collection Development in Academic Libraries, North Carolina Libraries. Six articles address issues of censorship and sexuality in libraries. Highlights include: surveys of censorship in North Carolina, acceptable use policies for the Internet, perceptions of librarians' sexuality, the proprietary nature of corporate library holdings, contemporary views and interpretation of First Amendment rights, and collection development policies and access issues in academic libraries. Descriptors: Academic Libraries, Access to Information, Censorship, Corporate Libraries

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 13 of 14)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Terry W. Belke, John Eliot Nichols, Theodore L. Glasser, James Ong, Jyotika Ramaprasad, Elaine M. Russo, Mary E. Trapp, Bruce Garrison, Sheila Brady, and Thomas A. Schwartz.

Nichols, John Eliot (1976). Federal Constitutional Protection of Freedom of the High School and College Student Press. In order to determine the scope and nature of federal constitutional protection of the student press, this study examines 100 reported and unreported court cases dealing with censorship and punishment in public high schools and colleges. The study includes major sections on the Supreme Court ruling in "Tinker v. Des Moines School District" and its interpretations by lower courts, on the protection given various kinds of student-publication content, and on procedures for student-press regulation. The study concludes that the student press at both levels is considerably less free than the press at large, although judicial protection of the college press approximates that of the press at large. It is recommended that, to better protect freedom of expression, the courts stiffen procedural requirements for restraint and punishment, that school officials not censor protected expression, and that schools limit their contact with the student press to fund-allocation and administration. Descriptors: Censorship, College Students, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation

Click, J. William; Kopenhaver, Lillian Lodge (1990). Opinions of Principals and Newspaper Advisers toward Student Press Freedom and Advisers' Responsibilities following Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier. A study examined the opinions of high school principals and advisers regarding a free student press and adviser role to determine whether opinions and practices had changed since the Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier decision. A survey was sent to both the newspaper adviser and the principal at 531 schools throughout the United States during the spring semester of 1989, just one year after the court's decision. Responses were received from 220 principals and 360 advisers. Respondents were asked to indicate on a seven-point scale the intensity of their agreement or disagreement for statements regarding role of the student newspaper, control by the administration, responsibility of the adviser, controversial issues, First Amendment rights, and the Hazelwood decision. Results revealed significant shifts in intensity in all seven points from the 1985 J. W. Click and L. L. Kopenhaver survey and indicated a more alarming extent of censorship than had been hypothesized. Findings suggest that advisers clearly see their role as requiring review of student copy and correction of factual inaccuracies and misspellings, even if the student cannot be told about them before publication. More research into the increased censorship conditions appears to be called for. (Five tables containing the complete results of replies and intensity measures are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Administrator Attitudes, Censorship, High Schools, Journalism Education

Salwen, Michael B.; Garrison, Bruce (1988). What Is Newsworthy and What Is Not? A Comparison of U.S. and Latin American Gatekeepers. Since gatekeepers have the ability to inform the public about international affairs, it is important to understand gatekeepers' news values and perceptions of the role of the press in society. A study hypothesized that these problems could be subsumed under two dimensions, freedom of the press and development. In a mail survey, subjects, 118 United States and 17 Latin American editors, evaluated the importance of a list of world press problems. Results showed (1) both the United States and Latin American editors believed that a press free of government pressure was important; (2) Latin American editors were more supportive of the developmental concept of the press than the United States editors; and (3) United States and Latin American editors showed no differences in their evaluations of news coverage of and by developing nations. Results suggest that despite the possibility that the two groups of editors would interpret the developmental concept differently, there was a surprising degree of agreement. (Two tables of data are included, and 66 references are appended.)   [More]  Descriptors: Comparative Analysis, Cross Cultural Studies, Editors, Foreign Countries

Glasser, Theodore L. (1979). Newsworthy Accusations and the Privilege of Neutral Reportage. Recent rulings of the United States Supreme Court and other courts have tried to maintain a balance between a free and unintimidated press and some measure of protection for individuals against libelous accusations. The language of recent rulings suggests that the courts are focusing on impartiality and objectivity in reporting as a standard of liability in libel suits; thus, individuals are held to enjoy a right to "neutral reportage." This implies a formal endorsement of journalism's unfortunate "naive empiricism." In practice, the privilege of neutral reportage serves to inhibit social inquiry and to discourage journalists in their search for truth. The privilege of neutral reportage runs counter to the needs of a community since it affords greater freedom of expression to those with power and status. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Court Litigation, Court Role, Federal Courts

Brady, Sheila; And Others (1991). It's Yours: The Bill of Rights. Lessons in the Bill of Rights for Students of English as a Second Language. This curriculum presents lessons and materials designed to teach immigrant students their rights and responsibilities under the U.S. legal system. The lessons employ interactive strategies, and develop higher order thinking skills as they foster English language learning. The curriculum contains eight units: (1) "Roots of Rights: Introduction to the Bill of Rights"; (2) "Free Speech, Assembly, Press: Freedom of Speech; Freedom of Press; Freedom of Assembly; Freedom to Petition Government"; (3) "Freedom to Believe: Freedom of Religion"; (4) "It's about Privacy: Freedom from Unreasonable Search and Seizure"; (5) "Rights of the Accused: Right to a Lawyer; Right to Trial by Jury; Protection Against Cruel and Unusual Punishment"; (6) "Equal Protection Under the Laws: Equal Rights"; (7) "The Bill of Rights and Your Body: Right to Privacy"; and (8) "The Right to Vote: Right to Vote and Participate." The Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the Extended Bill of Rights are appended. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Citizenship Responsibility, Civil Liberties, Constitutional History

Schwartz, Thomas A. (1983). A First Look at Sandra Day O'Connor and the First Amendment. First Amendment students were unhappy to see Supreme Court Justice Potter Stewart retire because his voting record demonstrated a favorable attitude toward freedom of speech and press. His replacement, Sandra Day O'Connor, was predicted to be a conservative or moderate who probably would vote consistently with Stewart in other areas, but her predilections about freedom of expression were unknown. In 184 cases in her first term and a half, O'Connor tended to side with the conservative justices in both First Amendment and other cases. Her decisions and opinions articulate a view that the role of the Court is limited and that deference to the states and to the political branches of the federal government should be the norm. In 23 free speech and press cases, O'Connor tended to side with the majority and with conservative justices. Her assertions of the values in the First Amendment pale in comparison with those of Stewart and other justices. Previous justices have developed a better appreciation for the First Amendment over time, but O'Connor has not leaned in that direction and may have an especially difficult time in doing so because of her "first women justice" status. Descriptors: Attitudes, Content Analysis, Court Judges, Court Litigation

Hastings, James R., Ed. (1966). Ceramics, Project Ideas for Industrial Arts. This book of ceramic project ideas is for teacher or student use in secondary industrial arts courses. It was developed in a workshop by teachers. The content objectives are to provide useful projects and units of instruction and to give direction to ceramics instruction which is in keeping with a changing technology. Forty-one project plans are presented under these units: (1) Hand Forming, (2) Slab Constructing, (3) Free Forming, (4) Press Molding, (5) Solid Casting, (6) Slip Casting, (7) Extruding, (8) Throwing and Turning, and (9) Jiggering. Each unit gives project plans, student activities, project procedures, related technical information, teacher demonstrations, related cultural information, and references. Similarly organized units cover 13 tools or pieces of equipment such as a jigger arm, stilts, an extrusion press, and a turning box. Information concerning the making of glazes is also included. Supplementary materials include a glossary of ceramic terms, a bibliography of books and periodicals, and indexes to related technical and cultural topics.   [More]  Descriptors: Ceramics, High Schools, Industrial Arts, Junior High Schools

Russo, Elaine M. (1989). Prior Restraint and the High School "Free Press": The Implications of Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier, Journal of Law and Education. In "Hazelwood School District v. Kuhlmeier," the Supreme Court held that school authorities did not violate students' First Amendment rights by censoring a high school newspaper. Traces the history of the decision and contends that the Court has effectively curbed the role of the school newspaper as a student voice. Descriptors: Censorship, Court Litigation, Federal Courts, Freedom of Speech

Trapp, Mary E. (1981). The Implications of John Hart Ely's Conceptual Framework for Interpretation of First Amendment Questions: The Continuation of Balancing in the Free Expression Arena. Examining interpretive approaches to the First Amendment free speech and press clause, this paper focuses on the conceptual framework proposed by John Hart Ely. Other First Amendment tests examined include clear and present danger, balancing, the absolute test, and A. Meiklejohn's "absolute" test. Following an analysis of Ely's First Amendment interpretation, the limitations of his tests are discussed. The "Branzburg,""Tornillo," and "Red Lion" cases are examined to demonstrate the weaknesses of those tests. The concluding section of the paper points out four problems of Ely's tests, indicating that the tests do not successfully implement the purposes of the First Amendment. Descriptors: Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Evaluation Criteria, Evaluation Methods

Ramaprasad, Jyotika; Ong, James (1989). Forum Page Letters in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during Relatively Free and Restricted Press Periods. In order to identify the scope or limits of the practice of development journalism, a study examined the content of the Forum page in the "Straits Times" of Singapore during relatively free (1979-1980) and restricted (1986-1987) press periods. The study had two major objectives: (1) to study the nature of the Forum page (a readers' letter page in which the government also participates); and (2) to observe if changes corresponding to the changes in press freedom were apparent on the Forum page. Altogether, the sample located 716 letters on the Forum page, and these were classified under 21 topics. Findings indicated that the change in press climate over the two periods did not bring about any major change on the Forum page; the guided press policy of Singapore manifested itself mainly, and possibly only, in the topics addressed, at least as far as the Forum page was concerned. (Seven tables of data, and 51 references are attached.)   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Content Analysis, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech

Belke, Terry W. (1995). A Synopsis of Herrnstein and Murray's "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life" (New York, Free Press, 1994), Alberta Journal of Educational Research. Neutral summary of "The Bell Curve" (Herrnstein and Murray) by a former student of Herrnstein. Focuses on the emergence of a cognitive elite in the United States; relationships between IQ and poverty, educational attainment, unemployment, divorce, illegitimacy, welfare dependency, parenting competence, criminal behaviors, and voting; racial and ethnic differences in IQ; and implications for education and public policy. Descriptors: Cognitive Ability, Elementary Secondary Education, Heredity, Higher Education

Pizante, Gary (1985). The Canadian Charter of Rights, American Jurisprudence, and Canadian Civil Libel Law: Will There Be an Occasion for Dancing in Canadian Streets?. The new and immense task that awaits the judiciary of Canada is to decide what limitations, if any, ought to be imposed upon freedom of expression as protected in the new Canadian Constitution with an entrenched Charter of Rights. The area of civil libel law provides special problems related to free speech and press. One source of help for scholars, lawyers, and judges struggling with this problem is the thinking of the American philosopher, Alexander Meiklejohn. His view is that the First Amendment was meant to protect political speech. Thus, he heralded the United States Supreme Court decision in "New York Times vs. Sullivan" as "an occasion for dancing in the streets." It is questionable, however, whether the Canadian courts will accept this theory of self-government and its idea of what is reasonable. Ultimately, the decision rests on how much of a departure from the past the Charter represents. The original purpose of the Canadian system was to provide peace, order, and good government and not life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness. Meiklejohn's thinking is based on a respect for the sovereignty of the people and on their ability to handle democratic tasks. Parts of his theory may lie on the surface of Canadian ideas, which, as the Charter shows, have a commitment to freedom of expression. The coming court battles and judicial decisions will demonstrate just how deeply that commitment goes. (The Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is appended.) Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Democracy

McKinnon, Lori Melton (1994). the Free Press: The Advertising and Editorial Content of "Ms." Magazine, 1972-1992, Electronic Journal of Communication/La Revue Electronique de Communication. Uses content analysis to show that, although "Ms." magazine sometimes compromised its promise to be a mass-mediated forum for feminist debate, its current format (ad-free, to do away with conflicts experienced between editors' ideology and advertisers' wishes) has allowed "Ms." to present a renewed vision of feminism. Descriptors: Advertising, Communication Research, Content Analysis, Economic Factors

Chang, Tsan-Kuo; Lee, Jae-won (1991). U.S. Gatekeepers and the New World Information Order: Journalistic Qualities and Their Impact. A national survey examined how United States newspaper editors responded to the 6 major issues surrounding the New World Information Order (NWIO) debate at the United Nations Educational, Scientific, and Cultural Organization (UNESCO) regarding the form and content of news flow at the international level. A 6-page questionnaire was completed by editors, managing editors, or foreign news editors at 279 newspapers (for a 51.7% response rate). Results indicated that most United States newspaper editors firmly opposed the demands that might alter the free flow structure of news traffic among countries, or that could compromise the independence of the American press free from external interference in the international communication arena. They were, however, more receptive to criticism concerning the technical deficiency of American news media coverage of foreign countries. The editors' responses to NWIO issues appeared to be a function of their professional training and political ideology. Those editors who were liberal, with better foreign language training, tended to be more sympathetic to the demand for an equal and balanced news flow. (Two tables of data and 38 references are attached.) Descriptors: Editors, Educational Attainment, Foreign Countries, Global Approach

McConnell, Jane S. (1995). Teaching the Common Good: Journalism Textbooks' Embrace of Social Responsibility, 1891-1942. Because the Hutchins Commission's report, "A Free and Responsible Press," has served as a benchmark concerning social responsibility of the press, a study compared its ideas about press responsibility and the role of journalism with those in journalism textbooks. Twelve period textbooks were content analyzed in detail as were several books written by press members for general consumption. Results showed that textbooks published between 1891 and 1942 clearly reflected journalism's growing concern with society. But even as this concern shaped ideas of press responsibility and the role of journalism in society, textbooks continued to uphold the basic standards of news writing (9 of the 12 texts dealt with writing). The earliest textbooks reflected journalism's individualistic tradition by characterizing press responsibility as the commitment of journalists to their careers or their newspapers' success. By 1910, however, journalism educators turned their attention outward. Textbook authors promoted professionalism and increasingly recommended a college education for journalists to raise journalism's status. Textbooks of the 1920s revealed a growing interest in the role of journalism in society through simple libertarian descriptions of journalism's purpose in a democratic society. In 1923 the newly formed American Society of Newspaper Editors adopted canons which emphasized the journalist's support of freedom of speech and press. By the end of the decade, journalism was being likened to a public utility–both a private enterprise and a public service. By the 1940s, news writing textbooks were reflecting journalism educators' wholehearted embrace of social responsibility as a fundamental principle of journalism. (Includes 94 notes.)   [More]  Descriptors: College Curriculum, Educational History, Ethics, Higher Education

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 12 of 14)

This bibliography is selected and organized by the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Robert G. Picard, Jonathan Kozol, Annette Gibbs, Joan Mower, Thomas Eveslage, Hermann Meyn, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, John A. Neal, Kay Neal, and Ronald K. L. Collins.

Eveslage, Thomas (1993). Tinkering with Student Journalists: Protest as Prologue to a Free Press in the 21st Century. Twenty-eight years ago three students in Des Moines, Iowa who wore black armbands to protest the war in Vietnam were suspended from school. When the 1969 landmark Supreme Court case of "Tinker v. Des Moines Independent School District" brought public school pupils under the First Amendment umbrella, many educators began to "tinker," to become provocateurs who dart, jab, cajole, and coax young people to become involved in a vigorous student press. As a result, student journalism is far more sophisticated today than it was 25 years ago. One of the responsibilities of an educator is to plant and nourish the seeds of conscientious citizenship that will take root, grow and bear fruit decades after the students leave. Today, young people are bringing societal ills and social issues to school with them; the best educators can do is equip young people to deal with these matters.   [More]  Descriptors: Freedom of Speech, Journalism Education, Journalism History, Political Issues

Mower, Joan (1994). News Libraries in Eastern Europe Help a Newly Free Press Find Its Power, American Libraries. Describes the Freedom Forum International Library Network that has been established in Central and Eastern Europe since 1992 to provide journalists in formerly Communist countries with current, accurate information through print materials, online databases, and CD-ROMs. Plans for future expansion are also discussed. Descriptors: Access to Information, Databases, Futures (of Society), International Programs

Meyn, Hermann (1991). Update on Germany: Now Eastern Germany Gets a Free Press. Special Report SO 8, 1991. Since the former East German Communist State–the German Democratic Republic (GDR)–was incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution has been valid throughout the whole of Germany, guaranteeing press freedom and ending press censorship in eastern Germany. In October 1989, the GDR had 39 daily newspapers (many published by the Socialist Unity Party of Germany (SED), 31 weekly papers and illustrated magazines, over 500 technical and specialized periodicals, and over 600 church papers and factory newspapers. A system of guidance and control by the SED rendered direct censorship unnecessary since, as a matter of course, the press published only what was acceptable to the SED. The period between October 1989 and October 1990 is seen in retrospect to have been a time of great experimentation and freedom for the press. Less than 2 years after the democratic transformation of the GDR, the structural shape of the West German press has become entrenched in most parts of the five new federal states: there are only a few supra-regional newspapers; the regional press has established a strong position; there is virtually no party press; and the press has become "concentrated" as mergers between publishing chains continue and as competition forces some newspapers and periodicals out of business. The large West German publishing concerns are likely to gain the edge on the market in eastern Germany. At the same time, foreign multi-media concerns have gained a foothold in the new federal states. This increasing globalization of the mass media (especially regarding former communist states) is of concern and interest to media students. (One table of data is included.) Descriptors: Censorship, Economic Change, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech

Collins, Ronald K. L. (1992). Cars & Censorship: How Advertising Pressure Can Corrupt a Free Press, Advancing the Consumer Interest. Discusses "private censorship" as it relates to car dealers and television advertising. Defines "private censorship" as that which occurs when a broadcaster suppresses or alters a news story that affects commercial clients (advertisers). Makes recommendations for a freer press. Descriptors: Advertising, Censorship, Economic Factors, Freedom of Speech

Mann, Merlin R. (1985). Free Press vs Fair Trial: First Amendment Right of Access to Pretrial Proceedings, Southwestern Mass Communication Journal. Assesses the erosion by lower courts of the Supreme Court's l979 "Gannett v. DePasquale" ruling, which appeared to limit the right of access to criminal pretrial proceedings. Descriptors: Court Doctrine, Court Litigation, Courts, Freedom of Speech

Gibbs, Annette (1972). Ten Guidelines for Principals and A Free Student Press. This paper presents guidelines for the chief student personnel administrator in implementing editorial policies related to freedom of expression in the sanctioned student newspaper. The guidelines are: (1) the function of the student newspaper should be clearly defined and agreed upon by the students, faculty and administrators; (2) the function of the student newspaper, as it relates to student freedom of expression, is parallel with the function of the commercial newspaper; (3) editorial freedom of expression is a basic requirement for the student newspaper; (4) the student newspaper should not be considered as an official publication of its school; (5) students do not forfeit their constitutional rights of freedom of expression; (6) student newspaper editorial policies which promote the lawful educational goals of the school are viewed as desirable by the courts; (7) a publications board offers the best method for providing guidance and leadership for the student newspaper activity; (8) student newspaper editorial freedom of expression requires student responsibility for presenting news and opinion accurately, fairly, and completely; (9) a professionally competent adviser for the student newspaper staff is desirable for both students and the administration; and (10) the student newspaper is primarily a medium of communication for students.   [More]  Descriptors: Higher Education, Journalism, Newspapers, School Newspapers

Lively, Don (1979). Affirmative Action and a Free Press: Policies and Problems in Promoting the First Amendment, Pacific Law Journal. Examines the changing realities that require new policies to promote the First Amendment, to evaluate existing government programs designed to promote the First Amendment, and to propose affirmative actions designed to protect First Amendment values. Available from University of the Pacific, McGeorge School of Law, Sacramento, CA 95817; reprint $2.00. Descriptors: Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Federal Regulation, Freedom of Speech

Picard, Robert G. (1987). Evidence of a "Failing Newspaper" under the Newspaper Preservation Act. The Newspaper Preservation Act of 1970 makes it possible for competing newspapers to combine advertising, production, circulation and management functions into a single newspaper corporation. For the attorney general and the courts to authorize a joint operating agreement (JOA) for a "failing newspaper," certain conditions must be met and certain types of financial and economic data must be examined. The most significant test of failure is whether a "circulation spiral" (indicated by circulation and advertising performance) exists, and a second major test is whether a significant disparity exists between the circulation and advertising shares of the two competing papers. Financial losses comprise the third major test in determining whether a paper is failing. A review of 57 newspapers that failed or merged during the past decade suggests that the majority of such failures and mergers has taken place in small- and mid-sized markets rather than in large metropolitan markets. The information also indicates that when the 60% to 40% circulation split is reached, continued operation of two papers becomes unprofitable. These three main tests of failure provide five indicators by which to judge whether failure exists, and newspapers in four of the five cities already granted JOAs (Anchorage, Alaska; Chattanooga, Tennessee; Cincinnati, Ohio; and Seattle, Washington) passed at least four of the five tests. The "Detroit Free Press," currently seeking JOA approval, does not pass the majority of the five tests, and, in fact, provides only two of the five indicators of failure. (Two pages of notes and three tables are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Competition, Court Litigation, Evaluation Criteria, Evaluation Methods

Abramowitz, Jack (1987). From New World to New Nation and Teacher's Guide. Readings in American History (In Their Own Words), Book I. This skills-text is the first of four books in the series "Readings in American History." The materials allow opportunities to improve reading and comprehension skills in a subject matter context by using certain primary sources related to the topic. Book I covers the time from the European discovery of the Americas in 1492 to the end of the American Revolution. Each lesson includes short readings with exercises and questions to allow students to explore the topic. The text includes: (1) "Europeans Meet 'Indians' in the New World"; (2) "Europeans and Native Americans"; (3) "The Native Americans"; (4) "Native Americans and the White Settlers"; (5) "Slaves from Africa for America"; (6) "The 'Middle Passage'"; (7) "The Puritans Decide to Leave Europe for America"; (8) "The Mayflower Compact"; (9) "The Zengers Defend a Free Press"; (10) "The Stamp Act"; (11) "The Colonists Defeat the Stamp Act"; (12) "Tories and Colonists"; (13) "Liberty or Death"; (14) "The Road to Lexington and Concord"; (15) "The Shot Heard 'Round the World"; (16) "The Declaration of Independence"; (17) "Americans at Valley Forge"; and (18) "The World Turned Upside Down." A review section, glossary, and teacher's guide are included. Descriptors: American Indians, Colonial History (United States), Cultural Pluralism, Elementary Education

Tankard, James W., Jr. (1979). Compliance with American Bar Association Fair Trial-Free Press Guidelines, Journalism Quarterly. A content analysis of pretrial crime news stories in a national probability sample of newspapers found a rate of violation of American Bar Association guidelines of 1.13 per story, with violations occurring in 67.7 percent of the stories. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Content Analysis, Crime, Freedom of Speech

Kozol, Jonathan (1986). Where Stands the Republic? Illiteracy: A Warning and a Challenge to the Nation's Press. A Report, with Recommendations to the American Newspaper Publishers Association and the American Society of Newspaper Editors. Approximately 25 million adults are currently reading below the fifth-grade level, and another 35 to 40 million adults read between the fifth- and eighth-grade levels. This is particularly significant for the American press inasmuch as the average daily newspaper is written at a minimum of a ninth-grade reading level. A number of unexamined statements have become firmly entrenched in media discussion of the problem of adult illiteracy. It is a myth to assume that illiterate persons are reluctant to come forward, are mostly immigrants and nonwhites, and somehow "fell through the cracks." Neither is it accurate to blame the illiteracy problem on parents not reading to their children, television, or a shift away from phonics. Other myths include the beliefs that the illiteracy problem can be met on the local level, that the problem can be left to volunteers, or that more research is needed. America's illiteracy problem has had profound costs to our society and potential costs to a free press. The illiteracy problem has resulted in the emergence of two literacies–and what is more–two nations. The press can and must take steps to find and implement long-term solutions to the problem. The press can become an advocate of adult literacy and can work to eradicate the stigma surrounding adult nonreaders. Newspapers can use their pages to advance specific local goals, their outreach power to launch citywide or regional events promoting literacy, and their corporate power and prestige to help make the vast expansion of local programs possible. (Appendixes include guidelines for increasing the role of American newspapers in the war on illiteracy and information on useful contacts for newspaper literacy action.) Descriptors: Adult Literacy, Advocacy, Business Responsibility, Change Strategies

American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC. (1987). Speaking of a Free Press: 200 Years of Notable Quotations about Press Freedoms. Intended to summarize the ideals underlying the struggle for freedom of the press and to reinforce the basic Constitutional principles upon which the United States functions, this collection of quotations reflects the beliefs of prominent people throughout history who have championed press freedom, as well as the ideas of some who have opposed it. The collection concludes with an outline of the major program goals of the American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation. Descriptors: Constitutional Law, Freedom of Speech, Intellectual Freedom, News Media

Jones, Anthony, Ed. (1994). Education and Society in the New Russia. This collection of essays examines the changes that have occurred in Russia since the dissolution of the USSR in 1991. A historical perspective is used to show that many of the changes were underway during perestroika and that post-Soviet developments are an extension of those changes. The book is divided into four sections. Section 1, "The Soviet Legacy," contains the essay "The Educational Legacy of the Soviet Period" (Anthony Jones). Section 2, "New Structures, New Curriculums," includes the essays: (1) "Plans to Reform Russian Higher Education" (Harley D. Balzer); (2) "Diversification in Russian Education" (Stephen T. Kerr); (3) "Clever Children and Curriculum Reform: The Progress of Differentiation in Soviet and Russian State Schooling" (John Dunstan); (4) "The Independent Schools of St. Petersburg: Diversification of Schooling in Postcommunist Russia" (Marie A. Westbrook; Lev Lurie; Mikhail Ivanov); (5) "History Education and Historiography in Soviet and Post-Soviet Russia" (William B. Husband); and (6) "Reform in History and Social Studies Education in Russian Secondary Schools" (Janet G. Vaillant). Section 3, "Professional Education," includes: (1) "Education for Management in a New Economy" (Sheila M. Puffer); (2) "Reforming Medical Education in Russia" (Julie V. Brown; Nina L. Rusinova); (3) "Educating Russia for a Free Press" (Nicholas Daniloff); and (4) "Issues in Teacher Education" (Stephen Webber; Tatiana Webber). Section 4, "Education and Social Issues," contains: (1) "Confronting Sexuality in School and Society" (Lynne Attwood); (2) "After Graduation, What? The Value of an Education in the New Order" (Deborah Adelman); and (3) "The Labor Market and Education in the Post-Soviet Era" (Igor V. Kitaev). Descriptors: Capitalism, Communism, Comparative Education, Cross Cultural Studies

Neal, John A.; Neal, Kay (1983). The Development of Protection of Political Expression in Wisconsin Supreme Court Cases: 1848-1925. Most communication courses and research involving freedom of speech examine issues by reviewing the decisions of the United States Supreme Court and the federal appelate courts. However, the high visibility of the federal courts can lead to a misguided emphasis by students of the history of free speech. Research into the development of present legal protections should concentrate on early decisions of state courts. For example, a review of the development of Wisconsin's interpretation of its constitutional provisions on free speech shows that many hundreds of cases before 1925 dealt, at least tangentially, with some aspects of free speech or free press. The most important aspect of its decisions was the degree of protection it afforded for criticism of public figures. By 1925, the court had provided itself with a number of precedents which it could choose to consider dominant in any particular case and may have been determined by the balance the court thought wise between the free speech rights of the individual or newspaper and the right of a person not to be the object of public ridicule. In this balance, the court gave more leeway to criticism of public officials whose conduct as officials was before the voters. The court appeared unwilling to extend the fair comment rationale to persons who were not integral members of the governmental process. The Court was also not willing to extend the constitutional protections to censorship by nongovernmental sources. Very generally, there was an increase in the protection of expression during the period from 1858 through 1925.   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Civil Rights, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1998). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (81st, Baltimore, Maryland, August 5-8, 1998). History. The History section of the Proceedings contains the following 18 papers: "Pioneers in the State Freedom of Information Movement" (Jeanni Atkins and James A. Lumpp); "'Censorship Liberally Administered': Press, U.S. Military Relations in the Spanish-American War" (Randall S. Sumpter); "Two Tales of One City: How Cultural Perspective Influenced the Reporting of a Pre-Civil Rights Story in Dallas" (Camille R. Kraeplin); "'At Our House': A Case Study of Grace B. Freeman, Syndicated Columnist, 1954-1964" (Marilyn S. Sarow); "Journalism behind Barbed Wire: Two Arkansas Relocation Center Newspapers" (Edward Jay Friedlander); "Paving the Road to Hell: National Public Radio in the Lee Frischknecht Years" (Michael P. McCauley); "Hitting from the Left: The Daily Worker's Assault on Baseball's Color Line" (Chris Lamb and Kelly Rusinack); "The Lone Ranger Rides Again: Black Press Editorial Stands on the Vietnam War during the Johnson Administration" (William J. Leonhirth); "'Those Who Toil and Spin': Female Textile Operatives' Publications in New England and the Response to Working Conditions, 1840-1850" (Mary M. Lamonica); "Standing for the Rights of the Black Worker–But Not at Home. The Labor Policies of the 'Chicago Defender'" (Jon Bekken); "The Journalistic Function of Book Reviews: How Faludi's 'Backlash' Made News" (Priscilla Coit Murphy); "The Icons of Despair: A Comparison of World Series Coverage in Newspapers before and during the Depression" (John Carvalho); "Women's Historical Contribution to Journalism Education as Seen in Emery's 'The Press and America'" (Kristine L. Nowak); "Pioneering for Women Journalists" Sallie Joy White, 1870-1909″ (Elizabeth V. Burt); "Wrestling with Corporate Identity: Television and the National Broadcasting Company" (Chad Dell); "Bridge to the Modern Era: 'Free Press' on the Wage Workers' Frontier" (David J. Vergobbi); "'The Feminine Mystique' and Mass Media: Implications for the Second Wave" (Patricia Bradley); and "The Chicago Television 'Holy War' of 1956-57" (Bob Pondillo).   [More]  Descriptors: Blacks, Book Reviews, Civil Rights, Females

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 11 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include C. Anthony Giffard, Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication, WALTER E. SCHAFER, Henry Overduin, Craig M. Allen, Clifton O. Lawhorne, Howard L. Hurwitz, Julie Hedgepeth WIlliams, Eugene E. Ruyle, and Kerry C. Kelly.

McDonough, Judith (1998). Technology, Teaching, and Citizenship Education. Today's computer technology is particularly beneficial for a class that is learning issues of government. Government document sources are well organized on the world wide web. Analyzing the Bill of Rights and how the Supreme Court has interpreted challenges is an exercise that incorporates citizenship education, offers insight into judicial decision making, and utilizes primary sources. For example, using the web site, "Supreme Court Cases by Topic," students can use keywords such as "cruel and unusual,""search and seizure,""free press," or "free speech" to find a list of cases in the database that deal with those topics. Versions of Supreme Court cases can be accessed quickly. In a few pages, the facts of the case are outlined, the decision is explained, and the majority opinion is given. The Court considers the Constitution, the intent of the framers, precedent, and in the case of the Amendment, the evolving standards of justice. After discussing the students' views of the case in question, they can examine the case to see what the Court decided and on what constitutional basis the justices made their decision. After the students have been introduced to the judicial side of the issue, the class can review the legislative side and use the background they gained from studying cases to assess pending legislation. When they have completed their evaluations of legislation under consideration, they can write to their representatives to express their views and urge their congressmen to vote appropriately. Web site addresses are provided. Contains 3 notes.    [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Critical Thinking, Higher Education, Instructional Effectiveness

WIlliams, Julie Hedgepeth (1993). America's Puritan Press, 1630-1690: The Value of Free Expression. During the period from 1630 to 1690, the Puritans were not arbitrary oppressors of free speech. They believed that public expression was valuable and necessary. They restricted only ungodly print or speeches by heretics and blasphemers. Within the boundaries of godly expression, Puritans encouraged discussion for the better enlightenment of mankind. The rule that free expression should be a blessing to society occasionally backfired as people such as John Palmer accused them of silencing free speech. However, Palmer was supporting a governor whose basis for governing was the squelching of political expression and the silencing of Puritan religious ministry. Puritans did restrict the press enough so that Quaker prints which lashed out against New England had to be printed in Philadelphia or London. However, the Puritans allowed the press at Harvard College, which they controlled, to publish other opposition pieces. Although historians sometimes jump to the conclusion that the Puritans had no interest in free expression, the Puritans' printed works show toleration and encouragement of free speech and free press within certain limits. So long as free speech did not abridge religion, free expression was both a treasure and a prize, a tool for learning and a means of debate. (Sixty-seven notes are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Colonial History (United States), Freedom of Speech, Journalism

American Journalism Historians' Association. (1991). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, October 3-5, 1991). The 24 papers in this collection discuss a variety of issues concerning the history of journalism in many countries. The papers are: "The East-Indian American Press" (Arthi Subramaniam); "The World's Oldest Magazine and Its Place in the Evolution of British Periodicals" (Sam G. Riley); "Donna Allen and the Women's Institute: A Feminist Perspective on the First Amendment" (Maurine H. Beasley); "Warning Visions: A Case Study of Three Canadian Documentaries" (Maureen J. Nemecek); "The Press and the Execution of the Rosenbergs" (Arlene Tyner); "Ethnic Community or Workers' Solidarity? Class and Ethnicity in the Foreign Language Press" (Jon Bekken); "Struggle for Free Expression: Case Studies of African-American Journalists" (Maurine H. Beasley); "Rediscovering Zona Gale, Journalist" (Elizabeth Burt); "E.L. Godkin and the Meaning of Journalism" (Edward Caudill); "Parliament and Expression of Opinion: 17th-Century England" (Kenneth Campbell); "'The Freeman' to 'The Tribune': Black Journalism in the Colonial Bahamas" (Howard S. Pactor); "Victorian Proletarian Spiritualism: God, Workers and Canadian Labour Journalism" (David R. Spencer); "A Pennsylvania Newspaper publisher as Captain of 'Gideon's Army': J.W. Gitt, Henry Wallace and the Progressive Party" (Mary A. Hamilton); "War, Women and Work: A Study of Gender Displays in Advertising Images during World War II" (Charles Lewis and John Neville); "The Only Good Indians: A Comparative Examination of Press Coverage of the War with the Southern Cheyennes (1864-1868)" (Patricia A. Curtin); "The Valley Tan: An Early Free Press Challenge in the Tops of the Mountains" (Jack A. Nelson and Ed Adams); "An International View of the Professionalization of Journalists: The International Congress of the Press, 1894-1914" (Ulf Jonas Bjork); "The Railroad Industry and Its Early Periodicals, 1831 to 1850, Exploring the History of the Business/Trade Press" (Kathleeen L. Endres); "The Mormon Problem: The Press Reacts to Mormons, Polygamy, and 'Reynolds v. United States' in 1879" (David A. Copeland); "How Advertisers Defined the Role of Women during World War II: An Analysis of Advertisements Appearing in 'Ladies Home Journal', 1940-1945" (Margaret Mary Gike); "Grim 'Slices of Life'–Disaster Reporting in the Gilded Age" (Paulette D. Kilmer); "The Newspaper Industry's Campaign against SpaceGrabbers, 1917-1921" (Susan M.  L. Caudill); "American Propaganda in Britain during World War I" (James D. Startt); and "Greater Distance = Declining Interest: Massachusetts Printers and Protections for a Free Press, 1783-1791" (Carol Sue Humphrey). Descriptors: Case Studies, Documentaries, Feminism, Foreign Countries

Overduin, Henry (1989). Titus Brandsma 1881-1942: An Enduring Symbol for Freedom of the Press. Titus Brandsma, a Dutch Carmelite priest, philosopher, educator, and active journalist, was killed by the Nazis in Dachau on July 26, 1942. Beatified by the Catholic Church in 1985, he was hailed as a potential second patron saint for journalists and unofficially adopted as such by some organized groups. The incident that precipitated his arrest and death was his organized opposition to a Nazi order explicitly forbidding appeal to principles as a reason to reject their advertising. His story is especially relevant for the North American context of today, where the social responsibility theory of the press postulates a secular press serving a pluralistic society. Within that context the "right of access" to the editorial and advertising columns is a controversial issue. The story of Brandsma's life and his final refusal to accept reasoning that explicitly forbade appeal to principles demonstrate the seriousness of principled journalism and publishing. The principle that the Nazis rejected and Brandsma was ready to die for was the principle of a free press–not just a Catholic press, but any press based on principles that go beyond commercial considerations. Thus he emerges as an enduring symbol of freedom of the press, one whose life and death transcend his own time and situation. (Seventy-four notes are included.) Descriptors: European History, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech, Journalism History

Rohrer, Daniel M. (1978). Newsmen's Privilege. In response to recent court decisions limiting reporters' rights to confidentiality, this paper considers whether a shield law would increase or decrease the flow of information desired in the investigation of a crime and what constitutes the public's right to know. It argues that since many reporters obtain stories by relying on the confidentiality of sources, the threat of forced disclosure thwarts access to information. Without such assurances of confidentiality, many important stories might not have been written. Among the stories mentioned in this regard are Lincoln Steffens' report on big city corruption, Ida Tarbell's report on oil trusts, and the reports about Watergate. The paper quotes a number of sources, among them the "London Times," the United States Senate Judiciary Committee, and Theodore H. White, concerning the problems of not protecting reporter confidentiality, and it discusses the implications of several court decisions. It also explores the possible conflict between Sixth Amendment guarantees to a fair trial and First Amendment guarantees of a free press. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1992). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part IV: Media and Law, Section A. Section A of the Media and Law section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "RICO and the First Amendment: Racketeering Laws Threaten Free Expression" (Matthew D. Bunker and others); "Press Coverage of the Federal Appellate Courts: Technology and a Shared Notion of Newsworthiness" (Rebekah V. Bromley); "The Evolution of Illinois Defamation Law over 102 Years" (Steven Helle); "Press Shortcomings on Commentary on the 2 Live Crew Obscenity Ruling" (Linda Lumsden); "Playing with Fire: An Historical and Legal Analysis of Cross Burning from the Scottish Highlands to St. Paul, Minnesota" (Linda Lumsden); "The Impact of 'Leathers v. Medlock': An Analysis of the Law of Media Taxation" (Cathy Packer); "The Mortgage Redlining Controversy: 1972-75: National People's Action Takes on the Lenders and Wins Anti-Discrimination Legislation in Congress. A Case Study in Social Problems and Agenda Building: The Role of Reformers, Lawmakers and Media in Public Policy Making" (Kirk Hallahan); "Violations of Open Meetings Laws: Statutory Provisions and Courts' Enforcement" (Milagros Rivera-Sanchez); and "A Content Analysis of Pre-Trial Crime News Stories' Violations of the American Bar Association's Fair Trial-Free Press Guidelines" (Maria B. Marron).   [More]  Descriptors: Content Analysis, Court Litigation, Federal Courts, Foreign Countries


ERIC Clearinghouse on Reading and Communication Skills, Urbana, IL. (1984). Journalism and Journalism Education: Abstracts of Doctoral Dissertations Published in "Dissertation Abstracts International," January through June 1984, (Vol. 44 Nos. 7 through 12). This collection of abstracts is part of a continuing series providing information on recent doctoral dissertations. The 18 titles deal with the following topics: (1) the meaning of "Cold War" in two York, Pennsylvania, daily newspapers; (2) Tom Paine and the disclosure of secret French aid to the United States; (3) "Schenck V. United States"; (4) an editorial analysis of the evacuation and encampment of the Japanese Americans during World War II; (5) radical currents in twentieth-century American press criticism; (6) neighborhood newspapers, citizen groups, and knowledge gaps on public affairs issues; (7) the news content of the prestigious dailies of India; (8) college president-newspaper adviser relationships and their effects on freedom of college sponsored newspapers; (9) newspaper reporters' attitudes regarding confidence in public education; (10) newspaper coverage of Congress and its utilization by Congressmen; (11) Martin Luther King, Jr., and the news magazines; (12) mass media in revolutionary societies; (13) West African newspapers as mirrors of concern about education; (14) stress on government and Mexican newspapers' commentary on government officials; (15) the concept of freedom and the free press; (16) state intervention in press economics in advanced Western democratic nations; (17) fair use as a copyright doctrine; and (18) the Baltimore, Maryland, "Afro-American" from 1892 to 1950.   [More]  Descriptors: Annotated Bibliographies, Content Analysis, Copyrights, Court Litigation

Allen, Craig M. (1987). Grey Area in the Blue Skies. A number of flight accidents in recent years have made the use of helicopters in news coverage controversial. Radio or television reporters are sometimes asked to fly under unsafe conditions simply because competing stations have sent up their reporters. Although pilots have the right to refuse to fly if they feel conditions are dubious, they too may be influenced by journalistic pressures. The National Broadcast Pilots' Association was formed in 1986 and plans soon to initiate flight guidelines that cover (1) specific minimum conditions for flight, (2) enforcement of pilot veto power, (3) mandatory written policies, and (4) withholding story information from pilot. Since any policy decision remains in the hands of executives, 120 news directors were sent questionnaires about the use of helicopters for reporting the news. Responses indicated that executives generally do not perceive a problem in "helicopter journalism" and have little interest in industry-wide guidelines. Only a few stations indicated that they have implemented their own guidelines. The results indicated a number of misconceptions: three news directors insisted that the FAA regulates their use of helicopters, but in fact the FAA is not involved in "helicopter journalism." Others said that guidelines would violate free press rights. Issues raised by this study require further examination, particularly in light of the 10 deaths that occurred in news helicopter crashes during 1986. (Tables of data and a list of 23 references are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Accident Prevention, Air Transportation, Aircraft Pilots, Broadcast Industry

American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC. (1993). Newspaper Association of America Foundation: Report for 1991-92. This document contains the 1991-92 annual report of the Newspaper Association of America (NAA) Foundation. The group previously was known as the American Newspaper Publishers Association (ANPA) Foundation. Throughout the report, the foundation is referred to as ANPA when referring to past activities, and NAA when referring to the present and future. The foundation has four basic objectives: (1) develop informed and intelligent newspaper readers; (2) enhance minority opportunity in newspapering; (3) develop and strengthen public understanding of a free press; and (4) advance the professionalism of the press. The 200th anniversary of the Bill of Rights dominated the foundation's activities during 1991 and much of 1992. The foundation helped make free copies of the U.S. Constitution available to newspapers and offered a free poster containing questions and answers about the U.S. Constitution. Cash grants were awarded to several organizations in a continuing effort to promote understanding of the First Amendment by young people, students, and the general public. The foundation intensified its emphasis on minorities during 1991-92. In 1992 a diversity action plan was adopted, with a goal of achieving genuine progress in newspapers toward minority hiring, retention, and promotion by the year 2000. The plan emphasizes actions newspapers can take to advance the position of minorities in newspapers, and includes seminars, training programs, and fellowships. Education and literacy continued to be prime concerns. By the end of 1991, an estimated half a million newspapers a day were being distributed to classrooms throughout the nation through the Newspaper in Education program.   [More]  Descriptors: Adult Education, Cultural Awareness, Elementary Secondary Education, Freedom of Speech

Lawhorne, Clifton O. (1982). The Egyptian Press: An Official Fourth Estate. A descriptive study based on Egyptian law, printed sources, and interviews clarifies our picture of the Egyptian Press by examining its status as a constitutionally mandated "Fourth Estate." The constitutional amendment, the resultant Egyptian Press Law, and the "Law Of Shame" (all passed in 1980), are designed to create a heavily controlled press that will help preserve the "status quo." With most press activity concentrated in Cairo and already centrally controlled by the Arab Socialist Union (which had broken with President Sadat over his peace with Israel), and with these papers dependent upon the government owned Middle East News Agency, some change of ownership was felt to be necessary. Although the Egyptian Press was subject to governmental control from the time of Nasser, the "Fourth Estate" Law transferred press ownership to the government, resting control of appointments and policy with the upper house of the legislature, the Consultative Assembly. Through the Egyptian Higher Press Council, the assembly effectively controls all the press in Egypt, even that not owned by the government. Even the theoretical press freedom granted by the Press Council is nonexistent, and under President Mubarak Egypt's press continues to resemble the Soviet press in both theory and practice much more closely than it does the free press of the Western world. Descriptors: Censorship, Developing Nations, Freedom of Speech, Journalism

Hurwitz, Howard L. (1988). The Last Angry Principal. In March 1976, Howard L. Hurwitz, then a principal in Long Island City Schools, was barricaded in his office by community supporters to prevent him from being fired for an action he took to maintain discipline in the school. This book is Hurwitz's personal account of his subsequent struggles with the New York City schools, including his arrest by a federal judge for refusing to submit to him data on the race and ethnic origins of teachers and students at Long Island City High School. From these personal accounts, the book moves to a broader discussion of the breakdown of order and discipline in schools, and the steps that now must be taken to restore excellence to schools. These latter chapters include the following: (1) "Peace Strikers Declare War on Schools;" (2) "Students' Rights and Wrongs"; (3) "Free Press: Student Style"; (4) "Discipline: Underpinning of Learning;" (5) "Teachers' Strikes: A Sword That Cuts Two Ways"; (6) "Decentralization: Cutting the Big Apple into Small Pieces"; (7) "Racial-Ethnic Spoils System Spoils Schools"; (8) "Bilingual Education: Political Ripoff"; (9) "A Profession at Risk"; and (10) "Can We Save Our Sinking Schools?" Descriptors: Authoritarianism, Autobiographies, Conservatism, Discipline

Giffard, C. Anthony (1985). News Agency Coverage of the United States Withdrawal from UNESCO. A study was conducted to examine news coverage of the U.S. withdrawal from Unesco. News reports distributed by the Associated Press, United Press International, New York Times News Service, and Washington Post-Los Angeles Times News Service were studied to determine how adequate a foundation they were providing Americans for independent judgment on the merits of the withdrawal. Taken as a whole, the 173 news items were strongly anti-Unesco and supportive of a U.S. withdrawal. More than two-thirds of the themes identified in the reports were critical of Unesco. Only a quarter were favorable toward the agency and critical of the withdrawal. A small proportion focused on the future. Allegations that Unesco was politicized, mismanaged, anti-free press and badly in need of reform greatly outnumbered denials that this was the case, or affirmations as to the value of Unesco programs. The views of those in the United States and elsewhere who see some merit in Unesco's programs and who seek reform from within the organization did not appear to have been adequately represented. The results indicated that American readers with no other source of information than their newspapers would have received a very one-sided picture of the Unesco dispute, one that stressed the position of the U.S. government and largely ignored the views of organizations in the United States and developing nations that would be hurt by the U.S. withdrawal. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Developing Nations, Freedom of Speech, Information Sources

Kelly, Kerry C. (2000). The Many Faces of Paul Robeson. The Constitution Community: Postwar United States (1945 to Early 1970s). Paul Robeson was an athlete-scholar-concert artist-actor who was also an activist for civil and human rights. The son of a former slave, he was born and raised during segregation, lynching, and open racism. Robeson was one of the top performers of his time, earning more money than many white entertainers. His travels overseas opened his awareness to the universality of human suffering and oppression. His outspokenness and pro-Soviet stance made him a target of militant anti-communists. In 1950 the State Department revoked his passport, thereby denying him the right to travel and to earn money abroad. Robeson filed a lawsuit for reinstatement of his passport. In 1958 the Supreme Court agreed with Robeson, ruling that the State Department could not deny citizens the right to travel because of their political beliefs. This lesson relates to Article I, Section 9, of the U.S. Constitution, which states that the migration of people should not be prohibited by Congress, and to the First Amendment right of free speech, press, and assembly. The lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Government. It offers three primary source documents, a photograph, a painting, and a drawing of Paul Robeson. The lesson provides historical background (with nine resources); and suggests diverse teaching activities, including brainstorming, document analysis, comparing time periods, oral performances, constitutional connection, and creative interpretation. Appended are photograph analysis, written document analysis, sound recording analysis, and motion picture analysis worksheets and the documents.   [More]  Descriptors: Activism, Black Leadership, Case Studies, Citizenship

Ruyle, Eugene E. (1977). The Future as Anthropology: Socialism as a Human Ecological Climax. This paper attempts to clarify the Marxian concept of socialism and concludes that social evolution will culminate in a world socialist system. By viewing sociocultural systems from an ecological perspective it is argued that individuals tend to maximize their consumption of labor energy, and minimize their own expenditure of labor energy. This minimax principle underlies the succession of human ecosystems: the process of the emergence, development, and overthrow of class rule. The earliest social order was the primitive communism of the hunting and gathering world, marked by an equal obligation of all in labor and consumption. As this classless society became large and sedentary, a ruling class emerged and feudalism followed. However, in developing the productive forces of society, the feudal rulers generated a new ruling class, the bourgeoisie, and capitalism soon replaced feudalism. According to the Marxian analysis of capitalism, it too will pave the way for a new social order. Unemployment, poverty, crime, racism, freedom of thought, critical social science, free press, and democratic institutions will give the working class both the reason and the power to overthrow capitalism. Finally, because socialism will provide roughly equal levels of consumption and the free development of individual potential, it will become a lasting social order.   [More]  Descriptors: Anthropology, Capitalism, Communism, Democratic Values

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 10 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include F. Dennis Hale, Julie C. Morse, Thomas A. Schwartz, Albany. Div. of General Education. New York State Education Dept, New York B'nai B'rith, Carolyn Pereira, Joey Senat, Howard L. Hurwitz, Michael B. Salwen, and Marian L. Huttenstine.

American Journalism Historians' Association. (1990). Selected Papers from the 1990 Meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association (Coeur d'Alene, Idaho, October 2-7, 1990): Part 2. The following 11 papers, on a variety of topics, were given at the 1990 meeting of the American Journalism Historians' Association: (1) "They Hang Editors Don't They?: Free Speech and Free Press Issues in the Haymarket Case, 1886" (Nathaniel Hong); (2) "G. K. Chesterton and the British Press, 1911-1933" (Dean Rapp); (3) "Trial by Newspaper in Nineteenth-Century England" (Judith Knelman); (4) "The Halftone and Magazine Reproduction in the United States: From 1880-1900" (Christopher R. Harris); (5) "'…A Beautiful Gesture That Is Perfectly Meaningless…' The ASNE Debate over Teeth in Its Code of Ethics, 1923-1932" (Alf Pratte); (6) "'…To Leave This Beggarly Profession': A Study of Lawyers in Journalism" (Elise D. Nordquist); (7) "The 'New England Courant': Voice of Anglicanism" (Wm. David Sloan); (8) "'Protect the Laborer': Henry Demarest Lloyd and Gilded Age Labor Reporting, 1878-1902" (Richard Digby-Junger); (9) "Science and Sin: The Debate over Prize Fighting in Three Antebellum New York City Newspapers" (Dennis Gildea); (10) "'Hojas Volantes': The Beginning of Print Journalism in the Americas" (Victoria Goff); and (11) "An Inside View of the Immigrant Press: Press Criticism by Two Swedish-American Editors" (Ulf Jonas Bjork). Descriptors: Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech, Journalism History, Newspapers

Hale, F. Dennis (1978). A Comparison of News and Editorial Coverage of Speech and Press Decisions of the Supreme Court. To determine whether newspapers are equally responsive to threats to freedom of speech and to freedom of the press, the news and editorial coverage by ten daily newspapers of 40 United States Supreme Court decisions concerning free expression was analyzed. The 20 free-press and 20 free-speech cases were randomly selected from over 70 free-expression decisions filed by the Court from 1966 to 1975. The speech cases concerned the right of individuals to communicate directly with other individuals through speech, signs, symbols, or leaflets. The press cases dealt with the right to communicate indirectly using a form of mass communication. Newspaper stories were examined for three days and editorials for ten days after the decisions had been filed. The ten newspapers combined gave significantly greater coverage to the press decisions, reporting them 85% of the time as opposed to 60% of the time for speech cases. Press decisions were mentioned in headlines 65% of the time, compared to 25% for speech cases. The newspapers editorialized on press decisions 24% of the time to 8% for speech decisions, and tended to favor free expression significantly more often in editorials about the press than in those about speech.   [More]  Descriptors: Content Analysis, Editorials, Freedom of Speech, Media Research

Hurwitz, Howard L. (1974). The Principal, School Discipline, and the Law. In this booklet, the Council of Supervisors and Administrators of the City of New York seeks to offer hope that teachers' and principals' capacity for the reasonable exercise of authority has not been exhausted. There is a body of legal opinion that supports the authority of the principal in disciplinary matters. It is a misconception that a student is deprived of this rights if, as an outcome of an administrative hearing, he is suspended from school or denied further public education. The courts are far from committed to the doctrine that each and every disciplinary decision is subject to trial; the courts do not always see the principal as an adversary in his relationship with students. In the sections on due process, suspensions, free speech, free press, respect for the flag, personal appearance, and searches and seizures, the author suggests that fairness, common sense, and experience remain the staples in school discipline. The courts have not enjoined principals from acting on the belief that parents send children to school to learn and that no learning can be carried on where some students are permitted to prevent others from learning.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Court Doctrine, Court Litigation, Discipline

B'nai B'rith, New York, NY. Anti-Defamation League. (1987). Government by the People, Government upon the People. A Comparison of Democratic and Undemocratic Forms of Government: The U.S. and the U.S.S.R. The goals of this learning packet are to: (1) increase understanding of the Soviet system; (2) enhance appreciation of U.S. constitutionally guaranteed rights; and (3) inform students of how governmental policies of both nations are reflected in the lives of ordinary people. The 17 reproducible lessons are designed to present: (1) the philosophy and structure of government; (2) the rights of citizens; and (3) with the work and home life of ordinary Soviet and U.S. people. In lessons 1-3, students define and distinguish between the political and economic systems of the United States and the Soviet Union. In lessons 4-9, students compare the rights to free speech, free press, fair trial, suitable punishment for crimes, free worship, and free movement in the United States and the Soviet Union. Students also analyze how government policies are reflected in the lives of contemporary Soviet dissidents and refuseniks, and they will study the U.S. judicial and political systems. In lessons 10-16, students draw comparisons between education, work, crime, and home life in the Soviet Union and the United States. In lesson l7, students analyze reasons that the U.S. government is democratic and the Soviet government is totalitarian. A teacher's guide, which outlines the objectives and teaching strategies for the module, is included with the packet. Descriptors: Capitalism, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Communism

Schwartz, Thomas A. (1986). A Prediction for the Outcome of Press-Enterprise Co. v. Superior Court (II). To determine whether U.S. Supreme Court judges have a systematic attitude toward court cases dealing with the law of newsgathering and fair trial-free press, and whether that attitude can help predict the outcome of the pending case Press-Enterprise Co. v. Superior Court (II), this paper applies an attitudinal theory from the field of social psychology to judicial behavior in relevant court cases. Relevant legal theories, extensive methodology, and access to the judicial process are discussed, followed by an in-depth consideration of the Press-Enterprise v. Superior Court case (in which media sought access to sealed transcripts of a murder trial in progress) and a prediction of the outcome. The ensuing discussion notes that: (1) an attitudinal theory can be applied by ascertaining the attitudes of the justices, explaining their past behavior, and predicting their future behavior; (2) the attitudinal referent of First Amendment access to pretrial hearings can be satisfactorily scaled, on which the outcome of the Press-Enterprise v. Superior Court case can be predicted; and (3) if the prediction that media will win by a vote of 6 to 3 proves true, the attitudinal theory still will be not be "proven"–either outcome will merely provide a measure of confirmation in a system of competing theories with differing levels of explanation. Descriptors: Behavior Patterns, Court Litigation, Court Role, Freedom of Information

New York State Education Dept., Albany. Div. of General Education. (1976). Certain Unalienable Rights. Materials for Using American Issues Forum in the American History Classroom, Topic III. This booklet presents a set of secondary level classroom strategies for examining American history in light of issues identified by the American Issues Forum. Emphasis is on "certain inalienable rights" of citizens. This topic is covered in four sections: freedom of speech, assembly, and religion; freedom of the press; freedom of search and seizure; and equal protection under the law. Each section in the booklet contains class activities involving reading, role playing, and debate; a selected bibliography of content area materials and films; and an annotated bibliography of general references. Section one presents 17 activities in which students analyze constitutional amendments and court cases dealing with public morality and free exercise of religion. With the nine activities in section two, students compare the meaning of "free press" to individuals and to American society. In one of seven activities in section three, a simulation teaches students about moot courts. Section four contains seven activities including consideration of hypothetical classroom situations reflecting discrimination and segregation. Instructional overviews included at the back of the booklet outline content, key concepts, and suggested themes for each of the four sections. All materials are in field-test condition.   [More]  Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Classroom Techniques, Concept Teaching, Due Process

De Mott, John (1979). Newspaper Ethics and Managing Editors: The Evolution of APME's Code. A review of the 42-year development of the professional code of ethics of the Associated Press Managing Editors (APME) demonstrates an effort to elevate newspaper ethical standards around the country. Following the example of the American Society of Newspaper Editors in establishing its "Canons of Journalism" in 1923, the APME formed a criteria committee that reviewed the findings of the Commission on Freedom of the Press (Hutchins Commission), the British Royal Commission, and the Brinton-Bush-Newell studies. In addition, 43 newspapers and the heads of 11 journalism schools were asked: "What makes a responsible, good, successful and community-conscious newspaper?" From material assembled during its study, the committee developed four criteria of a good newspaper: accuracy, responsibility, integrity, and leadership. Responding to a continued concern over the ethical problems of press/government relations, the free press/fair trial controversy, respect for privacy, and journalistic involvement in politics, the APME later created a professional standards committee that developed the present code of ethics and continues to study such topics as newspaper credibility, contests, press-created issues, sensationalism, political perquisites, and other ethical issues. (APME's Code of Ethics is included.) Descriptors: Codes of Ethics, Ethics, Journalism, Newspapers

Ryan, Timothy (1988). Living Dangerously–Changing Press Law in India. An examination of the changes in press laws after India gained its independence in 1947 shows how a free press is shaped mostly by the structure and evolution of the democratic society that it is intended to serve. The most salient features that have characterized the Indian press, from the early nineteenth century to the present day, are political opposition and reaction to a number of laws with regard to the media that India inherited from Great Britain (for example, registration of books, newspapers, and periodicals). Prior to independence several bodies of legislation shaped the tenor of the increasing tension between the press and government. In 1947, the new constitution superseded all previous restrictive press laws and guaranteed all individuals "freedom of expression." Analysis of legislation passed since then and a comparison with other countries' policies towards freedom of the press, shows that political history and geography can mean as much as ideology. The single issue which continues to play a major role in both the political and press life of the nation is the tension between maintaining communal calm and the freedom to inform, incite, and excite on religious issues. The laws the press now functions under have the capacity to engender repression, but judicial sanctions help ensure the continuing ability of the Indian press to function critically. (Eighty-one notes are included, and 37 references are appended.) Descriptors: Censorship, Colonialism, Democracy, Foreign Countries

Oppendahl, Alison; And Others (1974). Will Microfilm and Computers Replace Clippings?. Four speeches are presented, each of which deals with the use of conputers to organize and retrieve news stories. The first speech relates in detail the step-by-step process devised by the "Free Press" in Detroit to analyze, categorize, code, film, process, and retrieve news stories through the use of the electronic film retrieval system, Miracode, designed by Eastman Kodak. The second speech discusses the idea of a regional newspaper library which would employ the paper tape used to produce a newspaper to index by computer that day's news stories and to provide a computer-produced microfilm for mounting in member papers' retrieval devices. The third speech discusses the Automated News Clipping, Indexing and Retrieval System (ANCIRS) which uses a minicomputer to control a very high speed microfiche retrieval terminal so that any piece of morgue copy is available to the viewer in approximately four seconds on the Image Systems terminal. The fourth speech concerns the development of a new, automated computer-assisted system, ACCESS, now in use by the "Chicago Daily News" and "Chicago Sun-Times" Editorial Library.   [More]  Descriptors: Automation, Computer Output Microfilm, Computer Science, Data Processing

Senat, Joey (1996). On-Line Student Publications: Do Student Editors at Public Universities Shed Their First Amendment Rights in Cyberspace?. The First Amendment rights of students at public universities and colleges are well established by federal and state courts. Where a publication has been created as a forum for student expression, college authorities may not exercise anything but advisory control over editorial decisions of student editors. On-line student newspapers and literary magazines would seem to fall within the broad view of forms of expression granted these free press rights by the courts. Hence, the growing number of on-line student publications should be afforded the same First Amendment rights as their ink-and-paper forerunners. Universities adopting a hands-on attitude, despite consistent rulings by the courts granting editorial control to student editors, could find themselves being held liable for defamatory and privacy-invading statements made in those publications, while colleges that abide by the courts' rulings should be immune from such liability. However, Congress has muddied the First Amendment stream by treating the Internet–at least for the purposes of controlling obscenity and indecent language–as a medium to be regulated by the Federal Communications Commission. It may be that public universities will be forced to oversee and punish students for violations of the Communication Decency Act. That means that student editors could find themselves able to publish certain materials in print but not on-line. It can be argued that the rationales for allowing greater governmental restriction of broadcast media do not apply to on-line student publications. (Contains 121 references.) Descriptors: Administrator Role, Censorship, Court Litigation, Electronic Publishing

Morse, Julie C.; Pereira, Carolyn (1980). Citizens on Assignment. A Newspaper in Education Curriculum on Citizenship. A 3-section handbook provides secondary school teachers with concrete suggestions on how to use the newspaper to promote a constructive, participatory citizenry. Materials and lessons can be easily integrated into either language arts or social studies courses on history, government, law, American problems, or current events. The lessons can also be used as the basis for an independent course. The first section, "Citizens' Beat," consists of a series of 20 lesson plans, all of which are self-contained and may be used in any order. Most of the lessons can be completed in one day or extended over several class periods, depending on teacher preference. Individual lessons focus on format and content of the newspaper, "The 5 W's and H" (who, when, where, what, why, and how), news analysis skills, the role of a free press, and the newspaper as a vehicle for teaching law-related education. The second section, "What Can You Do about the News?" provides hands-on experience in taking action on a particular problem or issue identified in the news. It emphasizes community services and enables students to understand better how to influence public policy and law-making. The final section, "See It in Print," contains guidelines for a peer audience based writing program.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Civics, Constitutional History

Kentucky Univ., Lexington. Community Coll. System. (1975). Student Rights and Responsibilities. This document summarizes the rights and responsibilities of students in the University of Kentucky community college system. Part I deals with rules and procedures governing non-academic relationships between students and the University. The discussion is organized into five articles which have been adopted by the University Board of Trustees and may be amended only by that body: (1) the community college judicial system; (2) the rights of students, including admission, financial aid, facility use, privacy, the keeping of records, free expression, and free press; (3) the community college's supervisorial role over student organizations; (4) financial delinquency; (5) interference, coercion, and disruption. Part II deals with rules governing academic relationship, as adopted by the Community College Senate. In this part, the academic rights of students, and possible academic offenses (plagiarism, cheating) are discussed, along with procedures to be followed in the case of an academic offense or a breach of academic rights. Finally, this document discusses honor codes, and the composition of the Community College Appeals Board.   [More]  Descriptors: Codes of Ethics, Community Colleges, Discipline, Discipline Policy

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (1992). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (75th, Montreal, Quebec, Canada, August 5-8, 1992). Part V: Media and Law, Section B. Section B of the Media and Law section of the proceedings contains the following nine papers: "The Professional Person as Libel Plaintiff: Reexamination of the Public Figure Doctrine" (Harry W. Stonecipher and Don Sneed); "The Anti-Federalists and Taxation under the Free Press Clause of the First Amendment" (Brad Thompson); "Independent State Constitutional Analysis in Defamation Litigation: State High Court Decisions, 1986-1991" (James Parramore); "(Don't) Express Yourself: Can State Constitutions Protect Freedom of Speech and the Press during the Rehnquist Years? A 50-State Survey of Free Speech Provisions and a Digest of Selected States and How They Might Fare" (Nancy K. Bowman); "Inquiring Minds Have a 'Right' to Know: The Role of Tautology in Private Facts Cases" (Elizabeth M. Koehler); "Ideological Exclusion of Foreign Communicators: The Lingering Shadow of a McCarthy Era Xenophobe" (Yuming J. B. Hu); "Supreme Court Justice Sandra Day O'Connor's First Amendment Approach to Free Expression: A Decade in Review" (Robyn S. Goodman); "The Scope of Independent Appellate Court Review in Public Figure Libel Cases" (Paul Driscoll); and "Broadcasters and Non-Compete Clauses: Win, Lose or Draw a Lawsuit" (Sue Carter).   [More]  Descriptors: Competition, Court Litigation, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech

Salwen, Michael B.; Bernstein, James M. (1985). The Riotous Aftermath of the 1984 World Series: A Comparison of Prestige Press Coverage with Local Coverage. A study was conducted to determine whether differences existed between national media and local media in their coverage of events that have national interest. Coverage of the riotous aftermath of the 1984 World Series in Detroit was examined by comparing Detroit's daily newspapers with other United States dailies. The hypothesis was that stories in the Detroit newspapers would report a greater proportion of favorable assertions about the aftermath of the 1984 World Series than stories in the nation's prestige press. Coverage of the event was determined by looking at issues of Detroit's two dailies, the "News" and the "Free Press," and 13 prestigious national daily newspapers for October 15, 16, and 17. The units of analysis were evaluative statements (statements that clearly took a side concerning an issue surrounding the event) contained in stories of the World Series aftermath. The findings generally supported the hypothesis. However, the contrast between favorable and unfavorable stories was not as great in the sports sections of the newspapers as it was in the news stories. Descriptors: Athletics, Baseball, Comparative Analysis, Content Analysis

Huttenstine, Marian L.; Hamner, Claire (1979). KQED: A Case Study in Confusion. The United States Supreme Court's ruling in the "Houchins v KQED" case exemplifies the confusion of that court concerning any consistent view of the First Amendment of the United States Constitution, especially in terms of newsgathering and prior restraint. In this case, the Court reversed a lower court's decision that had held invalid a California sheriff's denial of media access to a prison. The Court's opinion, written by Chief Justice Warren Burger, was rooted in earlier decisions in which the Court had held that newspeople had no greater right of access to information than did the general public. This ruling is at odds with the traditional meaning and historical purpose of the First Amendment in terms of the role of the free press in a self-governing population. The public's right to know, recently upheld by the Court in several cases, was virtually ignored in the "Houchins v KQED" ruling. In actuality, the ruling was a 3-1-3 decision since Chief Justice Burger, joined by Justices Byron White and William Rehnquist, delivered the opinion; Justice John Paul Stevens, joined by Justices William Brennan and Byron Powell, wrote the dissent; and Justice Potter Stewart concurred in judgment but not in the rationale for reaching it. Such a ruling provides ground for supporting almost any interpretation of the First Amendment, symbolizing in so doing the confusion of the Court regarding this amendment. Descriptors: Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, Information Seeking

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 09 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Frederick C. Wilson, Thomas A. Schwartz, Margaret A. Blanchard, Sherrole Benton, Allen Palmer, Romulo F. Magsino, Andrew Ciofalo, Donald L. Shaw, Alice R. McCarthy, and Louis E. Ingelhart.

Brown, Donal (1983). Free Student Press Strengthens Democracy, Communication: Journalism Education Today (C:JET). Reports the update of a 1970 censorship case and offers reasons why the student press should be permitted to report controversial stories. Descriptors: Censorship, Democratic Values, Freedom of Speech, Journalism Education

Pearlstein, Allan (1994). News Media in the Courtroom: Free Press or Fair Trial. The news media's interaction with the criminal justice system and the public–specifically, whether or not the news media's presence inside and outside the courtroom affects a defendant's right to a fair trial–is examined. In 1965, Dr. Sam Sheppard was convicted for the murder of his pregnant wife in their Cleveland suburban home. Since this case received an enormous amount of pretrial publicity, the U.S. Supreme Court ruled that Dr. Sheppard's Sixth Amendment rights were violated and overturned the trial court's decision. Then, in the 1970s and 1980s, the Supreme Court began focusing more on the media's First Amendment rights. In Richmond Newspapers vs. Virginia, the Supreme Court ruled that for a courtroom to be closed, the trial judge must provide substantial proof showing that the defendant's right to a fair trial would be compromised by the media's presence. The Supreme Court, however, never set a standard that trial judges must follow: trial judges were left to their own best judgment. Experiments conducted by Roberts and Doob (1990), Moral and Cutler (1991) and Riedel (1993), show that pretrial publicity "can" affect a potential juror's or judge's decision. However, Davis' (1986) and part of Riedel's (1993) experiment revealed that potential jurors are able to set aside pretrial publicity and render a verdict on the evidence presented. This dichotomy shows that further research needs to be done, and that research should involve "actual trial participants" instead of "simulated trial participants." (Contains 17 references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Court Judges, Freedom of Information, Higher Education, Information Sources

Blanchard, Margaret A. (1977). The Hutchins Commission, The Press and the Responsibility Concept. Journalism Monographs No. 49. This monograph details several of the factors which brought about the publication, in 1947, of "A Free and Responsible Press," the report of the Hutchins Commission on Freedom of the Press. The commission's report gave the press a face-saving way of responding to the criticism which was leveled at the economic structure of newspaper operations and reinforced the overall theme of press "responsibility." Chapters include discussions of the environment of crisis in which the press existed prior to the formation of the commission, of the creation and workings of the commission, and of public and press reaction to the issuance of the report. It is concluded that the notion of a free, but responsible, press was an idea whose time had come. Descriptors: Censorship, Freedom of Speech, History, Journalism

Ciofalo, Andrew (1988). Professors Can Be Friends of a Free Press Too. A faculty adviser to the student newspaper at Loyola College, a small Catholic liberal arts college in Maryland, encountered difficulties concerning First Amendment rights. Previous efforts to establish guidelines for the student press by factions in the administration had failed, and the student newspaper has been able to solidify its First Amendment position with the help of the faculty and the Writing/Media Department. In this process the student press had to fend off challenges for control from student government, threats of economic censorship, and other assaults that paid no heed to judicial precedents. Internal fiscal malfeasance by some of the editors and a failure of the fiscal oversight responsibility of the student government also threatened the paper's existence.  Through a series of events, which included setting up a new student newspaper in the Writing and Media Department and not seeking a direct budget allocation from student government, the paper has begun a process of extricating its fiscal control from the student government. In the paper's fight against censorship and for academic freedom, the student journalists, who worked with the faculty adviser to effect change, have liberated the student newspaper from improper constraints–and did so within the established governance procedures.   [More]  Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Catholic Schools, Censorship, Faculty Advisers

Wilson, Frederick C. (1975). Student Rights and Responsibilities. A Law Focused Curriculum for American Indian High School Students. Curriculum Bulletin No. 18.01. The guide outlines a course to provide high school students with learning experiences in the political/governmental and legislative process. Designed as a semester course, the course aims to teach American Indian youth their rights and responsibilities under the U.S. Constitution and under their respective state and tribal governments, and to develop an awareness and an understanding of the concepts, principles, and functions of student rights and responsibilities both within the school and community environment. Consisting of 11 units, the course covers basic types of educational systems and laws, jurisdiction of courts, sources of law, the Bill of Rights, the right to privacy, student body constitution, due process in the school and in the community, the Indian Bill of Rights, voter education, fair trial/free press, consumer rights and responsibilities, and sources of authority for Indian schools and programs relating to American Indians. Briefly discussed are the course objectives, student competencies, student evaluation, and teaching strategies for law focused education (small groups, peer teaching, films, field trips, speakers, simulation games, and case studies). Also included are a 19-item bibliography and lists of 6 law-related audiovisuals (source, series, film title, and level) and 6 supplemental materials.   [More]  Descriptors: American Indians, Audiovisual Aids, Civil Liberties, Course Content

Palmer, Allen (1989). New World Journalism in Mauritius: The Credibility of Development News in the Third World. The debate over the role of the press in the Third World has largely ignored questions of public perception of media roles and performance. To investigate whether an audience perceives the fundamental difference between development journalism (where the state has significant involvement in news decisions) and a free press, and whether that difference matters to the audience, a study examined attitudes in Mauritius regarding that nation's media and its credibility. Subjects, 502 adult residents of Mauritius, were interviewed regarding four elements of media credibility (whether the news is fair and balanced, tells the truth, gets to the bottom of the community's problems, i.e., problem-solving, and reports accurately). Interviews also addressed media-government issues (whether journalists have a responsibility to report all the news, regardless of consequences; whether journalists should be licensed by the government to maintain high standards; and whether too much emphasis by journalists on conflicts and problems poses a threat to national development). Results included the finding that both television and newspaper journalism were rated quite favorably in terms of fairness/balance, believability, and accuracy. Results revealed a pattern of credibility and of different ratings for each news medium which suggest that this audience perceives the effects of government media control. Problem solving and accuracy in newspapers and television received comparable ratings in Mauritius. (Four tables of data and 28 notes are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Audience Response, Credibility, Developing Nations

Goldstein, Robert J. (1983). Freedom of the Press in Europe, 1815-1914. Journalism Monographs Number Eighty. In 19th century Europe, the dominant classes detested the idea of a free press, seeing it as a middle and lower class weapon. Although repression of the press in Europe existed long before the 19th century, at this time techniques of press repression fell into two major categories: (1) direct–licensing, prior censorship, and post-publication prosecution; and (2) indirect–financial constraints such as security or caution bonds and special press taxes meant to discourage the poor from publishing or buying newspapers. These forms of repression were highly effective in holding down the expression and circulation of opposition opinions in legally printed material and in making the lives of individual journalists miserable. But legal and illegal forms of resistance to press repression prevented these tactics from being entirely effective. Legal forms of resistance included using "Aesopian language" (critical political remarks indirectly made), taking advantage of technicalities and loopholes to avoid penalties, and banding together to overcome high newspaper prices. The two major techniques of illegal resistance were the publishing of clandestine newspapers and the smuggling of forbidden material. In conclusion, it should be noted that not only publishers and journalists, but great numbers of individuals engaged in such defiance. Descriptors: European History, Freedom of Speech, Journalism, News Reporting

Ingelhart, Louis E. (1986). Press Law and Press Freedom for High School Publications: Court Cases and Related Decisions Discussing Free Expression Guarantees and Limitations for High School Students and Journalists. Contributions to the Study of Mass Media and Communications, Number 6. According to this reference manual, the nation's courts offer public high school journalists the same constitutional protection for expression, free speech, and free press as adults. Part 1 traces the development of the First and Fourth Amendments and explains how these provisions apply to high school publications. Part 2 examines expression that can be regulated by public schools, including disruption of the school program; the time, place, and manner of distribution; and libel and obscenity. Courts generally approve stronger restrictions and regulations pertaining to high school publications than are permissible for adult or college student publications. Courts allow public school officials to request preliminary copies of high school publications and can forbid distribution of all publications posing a serious threat of danger or disruption or containing libelous or obscene material. The obscenity allowance has to do with teenagers' minority status. Part 3 covers other legal problems and constraints, including news gathering activities, confidentiality of news sources, advertizing, invasion of privacy, copyright, advisers, and printers and photographers. Part 4 offers conclusions and guidelines for students, advisers, and administrators. Included are an annotated bibliography with 22 references, an index of law cases, and a general index. Descriptors: Censorship, Courts, Freedom of Speech, High Schools

Magsino, Romulo F. (1980). Student Rights in Newfoundland and the United States: A Comparative Study. Official policies concerning students' rights in Newfoundland and in the United States are examined, and standards of justification for students' rights are discussed. A questionnaire was sent to each school district superintendent in Newfoundland and to 100 selected superintendents in the State of Wisconsin. The response rate from Newfoundland was 66%; from the United States, 56%. The superintendents were asked to indicate policies concerning students' rights to free speech, free press, association membership, personal appearance and behavior, reasonable punishment, privacy, due process, and academic matters. Results showed that, in spite of the many U.S. Supreme Court rulings on student rights, only in the area of due process do over 50% of the Wisconsin school boards have an officially adopted policy. In Newfoundland, even fewer school boards have official policies. The study concludes that many current standards of justification for students' rights–i.e., the student as a constitutional person, the student as a human person, the Rawlsian standard–are inadequate. A preferred justification is the utilitarian standard, which is based on a committed concern for the greatest welfare of the greatest number. Appendices contain the research proposal, the questionnaire, and statements on students' rights. Descriptors: Academic Education, Board of Education Policy, Civil Liberties, Comparative Analysis

McCarthy, Alice R., Ed.; And Others (1988). Michigan PTA Presents the Parents' Answer Book. This book was written to help parents build on their already existing skills and knowledge in the area of child rearing, become more competent parents, and mobilize their resources to strengthen family functioning. It consists of a series of questions posed by readers of the "Parent Talk Page" of the "Detroit Free Press" newspaper and answers to those questions provided by professionals in disciplines related to families. It is divided into three sections. The first section, Home-School Connection, contains questions and answers on such topics as the arts, career education, college, driver's education, gifted and talented children, health education, homework, kindergarten readiness, learning disabilities, mathematics and science, middle school preparation, parental involvement, parents' rights, parent-teacher conferences, physical fitness, learning to read, repeating grades, report cards, study habits, summer school and tutoring, teacher-student relationships, and testing. The second section, Parenting and Family Life, addresses questions on adolescence, alternatives to television, behavior problems, child rearing, children's fears, death, discipline, family conflict, fathers, health care, mental illness, parent education, racial prejudice, religious education, developing responsibility, self-esteem, sibling rivalry, single parenting, and stepparenting. The final section, Contemporary Issues, looks at Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) education, alcohol and alcoholism, child abuse, child care issues, divorce, drug abuse prevention, eating disorders, the media, runaways, sex education, smoking, street smarts, suicide prevention, teenage pregnancy, and working parents. Other resources for further reading on question topics are included. Descriptors: Child Rearing, Family Life, Family School Relationship, Parent Education

Shaw, Donald L.; Stevenson, Robert L. (1982). World of Conflict-World of Peace: Foreign Affairs News in Newspapers from Stable vs. Pluralistic Political Systems. A study was conducted to discover differences in foreign affairs news coverage in newspapers from countries with differing concepts of the role of the press. The study used data gathered in a content analysis of newspapers from 16 countries and the findings of an independent assessment of the relative freedom of press systems in those countries. This assessment categorized three countries as having a free press system (Iceland, the United States, and Turkey); six as having a partially free system (Mexico, Brazil, Egypt, Indonesia, Kenya, and Zambia); and seven as having systems that were not free (Ivory Coast, Tunisia, Thailand, Argentina, Algeria, Soviet Union, and Zaire). The study found that, while the press in each of the countries gave heavy coverage to executive leaders, the press systems labeled as not free were more likely than those labeled free to give top billing to the executive branch of the government. The nonfree press systems were less likely than the free systems to use direct quotations, but more likely to quote executives when such quotations were used. These newspapers were also less likely to emphasize political or civil conflict. Descriptors: Conflict, Content Analysis, Cultural Differences, Foreign Countries

Phifer, Gregg, Ed. (1978). Free Speech Yearbook 1978. The 17 articles in this collection deal with theoretical and practical freedom of speech issues. The topics include: freedom of speech in Marquette Park, Illinois; Nazis in Skokie, Illinois; freedom of expression in the Confederate States of America; Robert M. LaFollette's arguments for free speech and the rights of Congress; the United States Supreme Court and the First Amendment; Supreme Court decisions on free press/fair trial conflicts; psychological dimensions of free speech attitudes; the Federal Communications Commission and censorship; philosophical bases of antipornography arguments; the high school press and the First Amendment; a comparison of John Milton's "Areopagitica" with Thomas Erskine's addresses on freedom of speech; the free speech fights of the Industrial Workers of the World; an employee rights scale; a bibliography of materials published from July 1977 to June 1978 that deal with freedom of speech; lists of collections of materials on religious freedom; arguments by 12 advocates of censorship; and disruptions during General William Westmoreland's appearance on a Florida campus to speak in support of the Panama Canal treaties. Descriptors: Activism, Bibliographies, Censorship, Civil Liberties

Schwartz, Thomas A. (1982). Warren E. Burger: Editor-In-Chief Justice of the United States?. A study attempted to ascertain whether Supreme Court Justice Warren Burger demonstrated a particularly unfavorable attitude toward the press in a pattern of press-related decisions. Sixty press freedom cases located through the indexes of the official "United States Reports" were examined. Hypothesis 1 predicted that Burger assigned majority opinions in press freedom cases proportionately more often than he assigned majority opinions in nonpress freedom cases. Between 1969 and 1976, Burger made 85% of all possible assignments, and made 85% of the assignments for press freedom cases alone, so there was no relationship between the proportions of press freedom majority opinion assignments made by Burger and the other assignments he made. Hypothesis 2 asked whether Burger assigned himself majority author more often in free press cases than in nonpress freedom cases, presumably because he had a special interest in writing majority opinions to limit freedom of the press. His majority assignment load in nonpress freedom cases was nearly equal to those of the other justices, or about 12%. In press freedom cases, however, Burger assigned himself about 27% of the total, while an equitable average would have been about 11%. Overall, he chose conservative justices significantly more often than liberal judges to write majority opinions in all cases, and conservative justices in press freedom cases more often than conservative justices for nonpress freedom cases. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Court Judges, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech

Benton, Sherrole (1994). Searching for a Free Press in Indian Country, Tribal College. Describes the tribally controlled media's efforts to provide a form of checks and balances against the tribal council on behalf of the tribal community. Examines the issue of freedom of the tribal press, suggesting that tribal council's control of press's operating funds may limit press freedom. Descriptors: American Indians, Attitudes, Freedom of Information, Freedom of Speech

Detroit Public Schools, MI. Dept. of Curriculum Development Services. (1984). Black Americans and the Struggle for Excellence in Education. Annual Observance, Black History Month, February, 1984. Activities and resources used in observance of Black History Month (February, 1984) are presented. Although much of the document focuses on Detroit, Michigan, the guide can be used as a model for black history observance in other states. Following specific suggestions for school and individual observance of Black History Month, the guide presents an annotated chronology of the black experience in Detroit, 1736-1870. Programs and fliers announcing scheduled activities include announcements of museum exhibits, specially broadcast television and radio programs, Afro-American museum exhibits, an organization for research and preservation of Afro-American family history, a month-long series in the "Detroit Free Press," a school district theatrical performance, a Detroit Symphony Orchestra production entitled "Classical Roots," a high school music production, and a Detroit Historical Department exhibit. Illustrated Afro-Amerian biographical materials are followed by a section on student information resources which lists black historical sites in Detroit, black inventors/inventions, sample lesson plans/activities, African recipes, and information about a cultural research and development center and a Black McDonald's Owner's Association. The document concludes with a list of film and filmstrip titles related to black history. Descriptors: Black Achievement, Black History, Black Studies, Community Resources

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 08 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Gayle Mertz, Kenneth Creech, Walter Cronkite, MARSHALL B. CLINARD, Jean H. Otto, William I. Gorden, Stan Soffin, David L. Martinson, Shane Borrowman, and Mark Goodman.

Ingelhart, Louis (1996). A Journalist's Guide to the Free Press, College Media Review. Summarizes the content of the federal constitution and various state constitutions regarding freedom of the press. Examines certain borderline issues, including actions and expressions, pornography, defamation, libel, and copyrighted material. States that regulation of unprotected material must be reasonable, specific, and clear. Discusses what this all means to college journalism and journalists. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Freedom of Information, Freedom of Speech, Higher Education

Soffin, Stan; And Others (1987). Online Databases and Newspapers: An Assessment of Utilization and Attitudes. Forty-eight Michigan newspapers were surveyed by telephone to determine their criteria in selecting online database services, type of personnel using them, training procedures, budgets, and perceptions of the impact of these services on the speed of writing stories and quality of reporting. Data collection involved two phases: (1) researchers surveyed Michigan daily newspapers about their use of electronic databases and microcomputers; and (2) examining U.S. and Canadian dailies that are online contributors to VU/TEXT, DATATIMES or NEXIS. Results show that 96% do not subscribe to any online services, with a majority indicating that the services were too expensive, 50% saying they had no need for them, and 15% reporting lack of the expertise to use the services. More than half viewed online search skills as not very important. The two papers that did subscribe were the "Detroit Free Press" and the "Detroit News." The "Free Press" also maintains its own computerized "morgue," or archive, which is integrated with ongoing stories and is provided to the VU/TEXT database. Only three other Michigan newspapers operate micro-computer based "morgues." The survey also revealed that while 25% of Michigan newspapers have no personal computers of any kind, the rest have most or all of the equipment needed to access online databases should they choose to. Michigan newspapers' apparent lack of interest in online databases contrasts starkly with the growing national interest, reflected in the range of national newspapers contributing to online databases. (Appended tables compare penetration of IBM PC's, MacIntoshes and laptop computers, correlate computer use with newspaper characteristics, and analyze database contributors by city size and circulation.)   [More]  Descriptors: Computer Networks, Computers, Database Producers, Databases

Cronkite, Walter (1979). [Remarks.]. Because news supplied by the broadcast and print media is inadequate, the author suggests that public schools offer courses in how to read the newspaper, watch television, and listen to the radio. He contends that tying news to the classroom lesson for the day would make the lesson more relevant. The author examines the current state of the press and its deteriorating relationship to government and the courts. A free, unregulated press, he says, is democracy's early warning system against democracy's own excesses and the approach of tyranny; and the schools are the first line of defense against tyranny and for the preservation of democracy. Descriptors: Courts, Elementary Secondary Education, Freedom of Speech, News Media

Goodman, Mark (1988). Student Press Freedom: One View of the "Hazelwood" Decision, NASSP Bulletin. Reviews the "Hazelwood v. Kuhlmeier" U.S. Supreme Court decision upholding a principal's right to censor the content of a school-sponsored student publication. Explains why teachers oppose this decision, discusses liability issues, and argues for a free, uncensored student press. Includes eight legal references. Descriptors: Censorship, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, Secondary Education

Gorden, William I. (1971). Nine Men Plus. Supreme Court Opinions on Free Speech and Free Press. An Academic Game Simulation. The format of this text is dialogue–dialogue which involves formulating answers to knotty kinds of questions about free speech and free press which have worked their way to the Supreme Court. But it is a test meant to be played rather than read. Small groups within a classroom can simulate the Court's decision making process after minimal direction from the instructor. Or the whole class can debate and simulate a larger jury. The emphasis in the text is on the actual words of the justices who wrote the majority and dissenting opinions to the various First Amendment cases. The materials can serve as the basis for a whole course, or for a two- or three-week unit. Each simulation fits a normal classroom period. The cases within each division are chronologically arranged under one of six categories: 1) Academic Freedom; 2) Censorship; 3) Defamation and Libel; 4) Political Bissent; 5) Privacy; and 6) Provocation and Demonstration. Each case is briefly summarized and has ten exact quotations from the opinions (mostly anonymous) of the justices who heard it. The majority of cases are drawn from the past two decades. Complete instructions and materials required for playing the game are included in this book. Descriptors: Academic Freedom, Censorship, Citizenship, Civics

Bill of Rights Newsletter (1973). The Problems of a Free Press. Current issues involving freedom of the press are discussed in terms of the press's relationship with the executive and judiciary branches of the government. Descriptors: Censorship, Civil Liberties, Current Events, Federal Courts

Martinson, David L. (1986). College/High school Advisers Hold Similar Views on Most–But Not All–Student Press, First Amendment Issues, C.S.P.A.A. Bulletin. Reports on a survey of high school newspaper advisers' attitudes toward student press rights and the adviser's role, indicating that most support a free and independent press, but, unlike college advisers, high school advisers were neutral concerning faculty/administration control where a potentially damaging article was concerned. Descriptors: Administrator Role, Censorship, Comparative Analysis, Faculty Advisers

Haskel, Claudia A., Ed.; Otto, Jean H., Ed. (1991). A Time for Choices. A collection of essays on the 10 amendments that comprise the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution is presented in commemoration of the 200th anniversary of the ratification of the Bill of Rights. The following essays are included: "The First Amendment and the Virtues of an Open Society" (R. Smolla); "The First Amendment as a Guardian of Liberties" (M. Halperin); "The First Amendment and the Role of a Free Press in a Free Society" (B. Sanford); "An Unsettled Arena: Religion and the First Amendment" (R. White, Jr.); "The Second Amendment: The Right to Bear Arms" (W. Burger); "The Fourth Amendment, Privacy, and Modern Technology: A Time for Reassessment" (G. Trubow); "The Right of the People to be Secure in Their Persons, Homes, Papers, and Effects" (Y. Kamisar); "Freedom of Speech and the Privilege Against Self-Incrimination" (Justice W. Erickson); "Reconcilable Rights to a Fair Trial and a Free Press" (R. Mazer; D. Kelly); "The Eighth Amendment: An Analysis" (R. Fine); "The Ninth Amendment and Rights Not Enumerated" (R. Peck); "The First and Tenth Amendments in a Federal System: The States and Free Speech" (R. O'Neil); and "Crucial Connection: First and Fourteenth Amendments" (D. Gillmor). The Bill of Rights also is listed, as is information about the contributors, and a glossary of key terms. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Constitutional History, Constitutional Law

Creech, Kenneth (1988). The Free Press/Fair Trial Debate: Balancing First and Sixth Amendment Rights 1951-1986. Although the First Amendment guarantees the rights of freedom of speech and press, these rights are not absolute. With freedom comes the knowledge that irresponsible action can lead to the regulation of that freedom by others. The courts must balance conflicting rights in cases, such as press coverage of criminal trials, where irresponsible behavior by press, bench, and bar, has led to an imbalance between First and Sixth Amendment rights. Between 1951 and 1986 there have been a number of attempts to balance these rights, growing out of famous publicized court cases, such as that of Dr. Sam Sheppard. During this time the pendulum has swung from one extreme to the other, before finally settling close to the center. The parameters of the free press/fair trial debate have included the tolerance of sensationalistic reporting and the failure of judges to take simple precautions such as change of venue, continuance, sequestering of the jury, closing of criminal courtrooms, or even prior restraints against the press. Both the right to publish information about the criminal trial process and the right of the accused to receive a fair trial are equal and essential components in society. Safeguarding these rights is the responsibility of the press, bench, bar, and law enforcement officials and each must understand and respect the constitutional rights and responsibilities of the other for justice to be served. (Thirty-four notes are included.) Descriptors: Access to Information, Court Litigation, Court Role, Freedom of Information


Broido, Lisa (1980). Some Resources on the Free Press, Today's Education: Social Studies Edition. Lists books, audiovisual materials, and organizations relevant to the First Amendment freedoms: freedom of speech and press, and censorship. Descriptors: Audiovisual Aids, Books, Freedom of Speech, Higher Education

Starr, Isidore (1987). The Five Great Ideas of Our Constitution, Update on Law-Related Education. Identifies five great ideas of the U.S. Constitution as power, liberty, justice, equality, and property. The first of two installments, article focuses on how ideas of power and liberty are presented in the Constitution. It also discusses how people may exercise power through voting and public protest and liberty through their First Amendment rights to free speech and press. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law, Elementary Secondary Education

Middleton, Kent; And Others (1978). Compliance with the American Bar Association's Voluntary Free Press-Fair Trial Guidelines: An Empirical Study. The content of pretrial crime stories in a national sample of 29 newspapers was analyzed to discover the extent of violations of the voluntary free-press fair-trial guidelines of the American Bar Association (ABA), which have been adopted by 23 states. The investigation also considered the relationship between violations and several relevant factors such as whether the newspaper containing the violation was published in a state subscribing to the ABA guidelines, the sensationalism of the crime, whether sources of news about the suspect are named, and racial identification of the suspect. Of the 167 pretrial crime news stories selected for anlaysis, 113, or 67.8%, contained at least one violation of an ABA guideline. The overall rate of 1.13 violations per story was higher than previous research had indicated. In addition, the findings showed no discernable difference between the number of violations in states which had adopted the guidelines and those which had not. So few sensational stories were found that no analysis of this factor could be made. The same is true of the factor of racial identification, since none of the stories mentioned the race of the accused. The rate of identification of sources was nearly the same for stories with violations and those without. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Crime, Criminal Law, Freedom of Speech

Borrowman, Shane (1998). Ethics, Dialogue, and Denial: Responding to Anti-Semitic Discourse on the Web. Holocaust denial, like hate speech in general, is reaching far larger audiences on the World Wide Web that it was ever able to do in the past. The Internet is the most free press imaginable, and Holocaust deniers can publish their works as widely as they like and construct their message in any way they choose–they have great latitude when constructing their ethos, both academic ethos and "techno-ethos." When academic ethos is at work, a reader is convinced that the writer is a rational, reasonable, intelligent individual who is engaging in an honest dialogue with his or her audience. This is important for Holocaust deniers such as the Institute for Historical Review. Their mission statement displays a "scholarly," academic ethos which an instructor can use for discussions of Holocaust denial and of academic ethos in the classroom. The Committee for the Open Discussion of the Holocaust Story (CODOH), however, epitomizes techno-ethos and maintains a Web site filled with color, both easy-to-read and visually appealing. CODOH relies on the public's blanket acceptance of well packaged information on the Web to lend credibility to its view of the "Holocaust Story." Discussing Holocaust denial in the classroom may not be something that all teachers are comfortable with, but the Internet must be discussed. Composition teachers will spend endless energy teaching students to read critically; students also need to be taught how to "surf" critically. (Contains seven references.)   [More]  Descriptors: Anti Semitism, Critical Thinking, Discourse Communities, Ethics

Mertz, Gayle (1997). Fair Trials and Free Press. Student Forum, Update on Law-Related Education. Outlines a role play that highlights the potential conflict between freedom of the press and the rights of defendants and victims. Students assume the roles of representative characters (police chief, newspaper editor) in a small town where a sensational murder has occurred. They also conduct a class discussion. Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Constitutional Law

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 07 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Albert G. Pickerell, Carl L. Parks, Harold L. Nelson, Dwight L. Teeter, Joe D. Smith, Thaddeus Bonus, Chilton R. Bush, Alan Frank, Albany. New York State Library, and Michel Lipman.

Anapol, Malthon M. (1975). The Common Law Threesome: Libel, Slander, and Invasion of Privacy. Unlike most of the regulatory constraints which have impact on the media, libel, slander, and invasion of privacy are common law concepts developed from the precedents of previous court decisions and from reasoning employed in the written judicial opinions of appellate courts. Since common law is thus both traditional in nature and subject to rapid changes, the courts' handling of these concepts in relation to the media is complex, as may be seen in several specific court cases. Basically, the American system protects individuals who might be seriously damaged by irresponsible abuse of the first amendment freedoms (free speech and free press). That is, you can say it, print it, or broadcast it, but you must be prepared to face the consequences of your actions. No society has developed a better system in terms of freedom with responsibility for the media and protection for the individual.   [More]  Descriptors: Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, Mass Media, News Media

New York State Library, Albany. (1985). John Peter Zenger and the Freedom of the Press: 250th Anniversary, 1735-1985. This booklet accompanies the New York State Library exhibit of material related to the trial of John Peter Zenger. This 1735 trial established the legal precedent giving juries the power to decide libel suits. Labeled "the germ of American freedom," the trial was an important step in the development of American concepts of free speech and a free press. Complementing the exhibit and suitable for use in schools, this booklet includes a reprint of an article from the New York State Museum's publication "Naho" that gives an explanation of the trial, a bibliography of books and articles about the trial, information about trial proceeding documents held by the State Library, a summary of manuscript and archival sources, an explanation of the New York State Newspaper project that seeks to preserve the American heritage through newspaper conservation, and an overview of the State Library Services. Descriptors: Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, History Instruction, Instructional Materials

Frank, Alan; And Others (1988). The Bill of Rights in Nebraska. Curriculum Materials for Senior High School Students. Twelve lesson plans on the Bill of Rights are featured in these materials for Nebraska senior high school students. The 12 lessons include: (1) The Bill of Rights–Introductory Unit; (2) Freedom of Speech; (3) Freedom of the Press; (4) Free Press/Fair Trial; (5) Freedom of Religion; (6) The Right to Keep and Bear Arms; (7) Due Process; (8) Search and Seizure and the Right of Privacy; (9) The Fifth Amendment; (10) The Sixth Amendment: Equal Justice Under Law; (11) The Eighth Amendment; and (12) Equal Protection. Each lesson provides an introduction, goals, objectives, activities, and media resources. A series of activities comprise the focus of each lesson. Instructions for teachers on the activities are included, as are student materials.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Constitutional Law, High School Students, High Schools

Bonus, Thaddeus, Ed. (1984). Improving Internal Communication. Guidelines for developing the internal communications of colleges and universities, researching internal communication needs, and increasing information flow through traditional and nontraditional media are provided in 11 articles. Titles and authors include the following: "Work for an Open Internal Communication Policy" (Thaddeus Bonus); "Five Steps to Developing an Internal Communications Plan" (Sharon Logsdon Yoder); "The Internal Communicator's Prominent Role in PR" (Louis Cartier); "Why You Should Conduct Communications Research" (Robert Smith); "Writing for the Internal Audience" (Carol Reuss); "The Craft of Editing an Internal Publication" (Rosalyn Hiebert); "How to Write Headlines That Entice and Inform" (Paul Desruisseaux); "Controversy and the Free Press" *Mary Ann Aug); "How to Communicate Internally Through Multiple Media" (Terry D. Newfarmer); and "Enhance Productivity with Effective Internal Communication" (Eldon G. Schafer and Larry Romine). A statement of editorial policy for the University Times (University of Pittsburgh, 1982) is also included. In addition, an appendix lists internal publications and editors at 80 U.S. and Canadian schools. Descriptors: Communications, Editing, Higher Education, Information Dissemination

Addelston, Lorraine W.; Chrichlow, Mary L. (1979). School Safety Report III: A Sourcebook for Self-Help. The School Safety Committee is concerned with the obligations of schools to educate all children in an environment of moral responsibility and physical safety that will enable each child to realize the promise of America, that is, human rights, dignity, equality, and justice. The problem of school safety will be aggravated by the nation's economic crisis and accompanying increased unemployment. School personnel, community members, law enforcement agencies and the judiciary are in urgent need of strategies to prevent confrontations among themselves and to increase school safety. Suggestions, facts and legal decisions are presented, with the goal of preventing and controlling disruptive pupil behavior in schools. Topics addressed are: (1) building regulations; (2) dress; (3) flag amenities; (4) free press; (5) loco parentis; (6) parents and school safety; (7) police and the school; (8) the principal's role; (9) school regulations vs. juvenile court regulations; (10) search and seizure: (11) suspension; and (12) use of force. Descriptors: Behavior Problems, Change Strategies, Crime, Discipline Policy

Downing, Edna C. (1966). Units on the Study of the Newspaper for English Classes, Grades 7-12. Emphasizing the newspaper's influence on people's lives and opinions and its role in preserving a democratic government, this teaching guide attempts to promote student understanding and appreciation of the functions, service, and responsibilities of the press. Units for grades 7-12 focus on particular aspects of the newspaper: introduction to the purposes and content of a newspaper (grade 7); study of the history of newspapers and of news analysis (grade 8); how to read, use, and write for a newspaper (grade 9); history of the American press, the obligation of the press to the community, and the responsibilities of citizens in maintaining a free press (grade 10); examination of the nature, techniques, and kinds of propaganda (grade 11); and comparative study and content analysis of newspapers (grade 12). Reading, writing, speaking, and listening skills are emphasized in specific classroom activities suggested for each grade. A bibliography of books and films, with some annotations, is included.   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Democratic Values, English Instruction, Freedom of Speech

Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication. (2000). Proceedings of the Annual Meeting of the Association for Education in Journalism and Mass Communication (83rd, Phoenix, Arizona, August 9-12, 2000). History Division. The History Division section of the proceedings contains the following 13 papers: "William G. Brownlow and The Knoxville 'Whig': A Career of Personal Journalism or Partisan Press?" (Alisa White Coleman); "Covering the Century: How Four New York Dailies Reported the End of the 19th Century" (Randall S. Sumpter); "Science, Journalism and the Construction of News: How Print Media Framed the 1918 Influenza Pandemic" (Meg Spratt); "The Klan and Press in Atlanta, 1919-1921: A Tale of Public Relations and Newspaper Opposition" (Hanna E. Norton and Karen S. Miller); "The Confederate Press Association: A Revolutionary Experience in Southern Journalism?" (Ford Risley); "Selling the National Pastime: The Start of Major League Baseball Public Relations" (Bill Anderson); "Czars, Presidents, Philosophers, and Miscegenation: The Cultural Power of Early Motion Pictures" (Elaine Walls Reed); "'Pounding Brass' for the Associated Press: A Press Telegrapher Recalls His Craft" (J. Steven Smethers); "American Press Coverage of Sociologist Herbert Spencer During His 1882 Visit to America" (Jack Breslin); "Strange Bedfellows, or a Marriage Made in Heaven? Advertising, the Federal Government, and the Second World War" (Inger L. Stole); "The U.S. Military and War Correspondents in World War II: Roles and Relationships" (Alan Armitage); "The Creation of the 'Free' Press in Japanese American Internment Camps: The War Relocation Authority's Planning and Making of the Camp Newspaper Policy" (Takeya Mizuno); and "Chicago Newspaper Theater Critics of the Early 20th Century: Mediating Ibsen, the Syndicate and the Little Theaters" (Scott Fosdick). Descriptors: Advertising, Criticism, Films, Higher Education

Cohodas, Nadine (1976). Collision of the First and Sixth Amendments: Direct Restraints vs. Alternative Remedies. An Update. The clash between the First and Sixth Amendments continues to be a major concern for both journalists and the courts. This paper reviews the major cases in the evolution of the "fair trial/free press" controversy from the "Irvin vs. Dowd" decision in 1961 to the Blackmun decision in 1975. The attempt is made to answer the question of when, and if, direct restraint of the press is necessary in a criminal proceeding; alternatives to this course, which can ensure protection of both First and Sixth Amendment rights, are examined. The analysis concludes with the recommendation of an unrestrained press in coverage of criminal trials, with the right to pursue information regardless of restrictions placed on sources. Control of sources within the criminal judicial system is advocated.  Protecting individual rights under both constitutional provisions is, however, perceived as the responsibility of both the press and the judicial system.   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Court Doctrine, Court Role, Courts

Update on Law-Related (1997). Update on Law-Related Education, 1997. This document consists of 3 volumes of a serial devoted to law-related education (LRE) offering background information on a wide range of legal issues and teaching strategies for LRE. The title themes for the three volumes include "International Law,""Crime and Freedom," and "Civil Law". Background articles are provided along with teaching materials on a variety of topics, such as human rights, war and peace, land mines, global warming, juvenile law, rights of the accused, protecting offenders' rights, free trials and free press, tort law, the civil jury, and Congress. Additionally, issues of "Update on the Courts" provide current information on Supreme Court and other federal court cases and decisions. Teaching materials propose methods that involve class discussion, collaborative learning, and role playing activities. Many lesson plans include student handouts and visuals.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizen Participation, Citizenship Education, Civil Law, Civil Liberties

Pickerell, Albert G.; Lipman, Michel (1974). The Courts and the News Media. This book is intended to provide reporters who cover court proceedings with a basic knowledge of the organization of California's courts and of the procedures they follow. It contains: material about court organization and jurisdiction, pretrial civil procedure, pretrial criminal procedure, and civil and criminal trial procedure; a legal bibliography; a history of the free press-fair trial movement in the United States; and an article on the current newsmen's shield law controversy. The document concludes with a joint declaration regarding news coverage of criminal proceedings in California, the Code of Ethics of the Society of Professional Journalists, the Code of Judicial Ethics of the Conference of California Judges, and the Code of Judicial Conduct of the American Bar Association.   [More]  Descriptors: Court Doctrine, Court Litigation, Court Reporters, Courts

Nelson, Harold L.; Teeter, Dwight L., Jr. (1978). Law of Mass Communications: Freedom and Control of Print and Broadcast Media. Third Edition. This book is divided into three major sections: principles and development of freedom of expression, rights in conflict with free expression, and communications law and the public interest. Specific areas covered in the two chapters of the first section are freedom and control and a historical background of freedom of expression. The second section contains nine chapters which cover defamation, the constitutional defense against libel suits, traditional defenses in libel, the law of privacy and the media, copyright, free press and fair trial, criminal words, contempt, and obscenity and blasphemy. The five chapters of the final section deal with access to government information, regulation of broadcasting and advertising, antitrust law and the mass media, and taxation and licensing. Appendixes contain abbreviations used in the book, selected court and pleading terms, a bibliography, advertising standards from the television code, and a discussion of "Zurcher versus Stanford Daily." Descriptors: Censorship, Constitutional Law, Copyrights, Court Litigation

Bush, Chilton R., Comp. (1967). News Research for Better Newspapers. Volume 2. This volume is a reproduction of summaries by the American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation (ANPAF) designed to put to the test of public response some of the various components which go into making a newspaper, including headline and type size, the use of captions, and story location. The main purpose is to supply data which editors can use in making their own judgments, but an effort is made not to tell editors how to edit. Of the 74 summaries in this volume, 39 represent research done in the universities, 6 were sponsored by the ANPAF, 21 represent research done by individual newspapers, and 8 represent research done by others. The studies are arranged under the following chapter headings: "How and When the Newspaper Is Read,""Some Audience Characteristics,""Readership,""Readership by Teenagers,""Some Communication Behavior,""Typography,""Headlines,""News and Editorial Policy,""Free Press and Fair Trial," and "Miscellaneous."   [More]  Descriptors: Administration, Adolescents, Adults, Censorship

Smith, Joe D., Jr. (1979). The New "Illiteracy": A Threat to Newspapers?. This discussion of the necessity for promoting a vigourous, prosperous, and free press addresses several areas of journalistic concern: the growing tendency toward disinterest in reading in a population that is nearly 100% literate; the decline of reading habits and motivation to read as reading skills improve; and the inability of newspaper circulation growth to keep pace with population growth. Several efforts to reverse these trends are described, including the organization of the Newspaper in Education program, in which local newspapers make copies of the newspaper available to teachers for classroom use, and the Newspaper Readership Project, a cooperative effort of 16 national and international newspaper associations to encourage newspapers in editing, circulation, advertising, promotion, personnel, research, training, and technology utilization. Efforts are suggested to attract nonreaders. Descriptors: Adult Literacy, Affective Behavior, Audiences, Illiteracy

Parks, Carl L. (1977). "Sunshine" in Michigan. This report examines the rationale for opening deliberative processes to the public and discusses, specifically, the Michigan open-meetings law. The following topics are addressed: the definition of public business; the components of a free press; the relationship between open meetings, community expertise, and civic consciousness; and protection against wrongdoing, fraud, and misrepresentation. In addition, the conflict between the right to know and the right to privacy, secrecy and the public welfare, and governmental secrecy in general are discussed. Analysis of the Michigan law of 1976 includes treatment of the historical underpinnings of the law, as well as discussion of relevant case law and media response. It is concluded that the actual application of the Michigan open-meetings law can bring about greater access to public deliberations. In the face of ever-changing case law, however, it is evident that the open-meetings law is not without exception. Descriptors: Censorship, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, Information Utilization


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Bibliography: Free Press (page 06 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is reformatted and customized for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include Jeffery A. Smith, Milton Hollstein, Mark Goodman, Robert J. Shoop, Munir K. Nasser, John L. Hulteng, Itibari M. Zulu, Thomas Eveslage, Todd Clark, and Jean-Luc Renaud-Komiya.

Zulu, Itibari M. (1995). The African American Press Examines "The Bell Curve": An Annotated Bibliography. "The Bell Curve: Intelligence and Class Structure in American Life" by Richard J. Herrnstein and Charles Murray (New York: Free Press, 1994) has become one of the most controversial books of recent years. The crux of the controversy, the relationship between race and intelligence, has touched a nerve in the African American community. This non-exhaustive annotated bibliography provides insight into the reactions of the African American press and the African American ethos concerning rage, intelligence, politics, and social class. Thirty-three sources are listed.   [More]  Descriptors: Biological Influences, Black Community, Blacks, Intelligence

Nasser, Munir K. (1974). Along Freedom's Double Edge: The Arab Press Under Israeli Occupation. This paper examines the Arab press under Israeli occupation and presents two hypotheses: freedom of the press under occupation serves both Israeli interests and the Arab population, and freedom of the Arab press under occupation is "relative" and "controlled." By allowing freedom of expression, the Israelis achieve several aims: a free press will prevent the establishment of an underground press and will serve as an outlet for mass tension; a free press assures that the conflict over the future of the occupied areas will be kept in the forefront of Arab public opinion; extremist Arab writings are encouraged by Israeli authorities to justify their stronghold over the occupied areas and to convince the Israeli people that military suppression is the only way to keep normality; and the Arab press is manipulated as a channel of propaganda for Israeli achievements in the occupied areas. Although Arab editors see these facts as negative, they feel that there are positive aspects which can be exploited. They believe that the major role of the press under occupation is to keep the conquered Arabs well informed and enlightened with their morale high.   [More]  Descriptors: Arabs, Communication (Thought Transfer), Freedom of Speech, Higher Education

Towers, Wayne M. (1977). Empirical Support for Some Major Supreme Court Decisions on Free Press/Fair Trial Conflicts. The free press/fair trial controversy hinges on two distinctions: "decorum" (the general manner in which a trial is comported) vs. "substance" (the actual content of information relating to a trial, including both evidentiary and nonevidentiary information), and behavior within vs. behavior outside of the courtroom. Four major Supreme Court decisions provide evidence of that court's interpretations of those distinguishable terms, and preface a discussion of the court's "Nebraska Press Association et al., v. Stuart" decision. The resulting discussion reaffirms the paradox of maintaining the status quo; news media cannot be given full access to the courtroom because they are disruptive, but news media cannot be denied access because they are indispensable. Descriptors: Civil Liberties, Court Litigation, Due Process, Equal Protection

Bush, Chilton R., Ed. (1970). Free Press and Fair Trial: Some Dimensions of the Problem. This volume presents the findings of several research studies related to jury verdicts in felony cases and pretrial publicity. The studies include: "Trial Judges' Opinions on Prejudicial Publicity" by Fred Siebert, an attempt to learn whether or not judges thought that pretrial publicity had ever resulted in miscarriage of justice in their courts; George Hough's study, "Felonies, Jury Trial, and News Reports," an analysis of the disposition in one criminal court and the reporting in one newspaper of all felony cases for which warrants of arrest had been issued over a six-month period; "Free Press and Fair Trial" by Walter Wilcox, an attempt to determine if existing behavioral science theories, concepts, principles, postulates and experiments have the power to illuminate the question of fair trial vs. free press and, if so, the extent of such power; "Access by Newsmen to Judicial Proceedings" by Fred Siebert, a report on a survey of trial judges to determine what the actual practices are in trial court and to elicit the judges' opinion on these practices; and "What We Have Learned" by Chilton Bush, a summary of the previously mentioned studies. Descriptors: Court Litigation, Journalism, Legal Problems, Mass Media

Eveslage, Thomas (1985). The First Amendment: Free Speech & a Free Press. A Curriculum Guide for High School Teachers. This curriculum guide is intended to encourage students to learn how everyone benefits when young people, other citizens, and the media exercise the constitutional rights of free speech and free press. Background information on free speech issues is provided, along with classroom activities, discussion questions, and student worksheets. There are 11 chapters. Chapters 1 and 2 summarize why the First Amendment should be studied and how that study might be approached. A brief discussion of how constitutional law and courts operate is provided in chapter 3. Other chapters outline and discuss specific free speech topics affecting the media. These include free expression versus government authority; libel; privacy and copyright; confidentiality, contempt, and the courtroom; obscenity, responsibility, and codes of ethics; and broadcast and advertising regulation. A chapter on students' rights and responsibilities reviews the earlier chapters within the context of the high school and student publications. The guide concludes with a brief summary of significant court cases and annotations of useful resources.   [More]  Descriptors: Advertising, Broadcast Television, Censorship, Civil Rights

Clark, Todd; And Others (1975). Fair Trial v. Free Press. A Resource Manual for Teachers and Students. This material is produced to provide a program to instruct secondary level students in the political, governmental, and legal processes and to encourage active student participation in these processes. A unique feature of the program is the role of the community as a base for practical learning. Part of a year-long curriculum program, this unit examines civil rights in relation to fair trail and free press. The unit examines the court system, criminal procedures, and the basic foundations of law. Students examine case studies and analyze the decision rendered. Students are expected to formulate their own law, evaluate its precision, jurisdiction, limits of enforcement, and possible alternatives. Learning activities include mock trials, simulation, role playing, field study, problem solving, issue analysis, and research. Chapter one presents the teaching strategies for law-focused education. Chapter two provides several noteworthy opinions designed to stimulate students to weigh the pros and cons of the issue of fair trail v. free press. The third chapter includes three actual murder cases which received some of the most intense publicity in the twentieth century. The fourth chapter provides extensive field study and active student participation relevant to court decisions. A legal glossary and bibliography conclude the document.   [More]  Descriptors: Case Studies, Civil Liberties, Civil Rights, Community Cooperation

Coulson, David (1978). Antitrust Law and the Media: Making the Newspapers Safe for Democracy. A number of constitutional and economic problems are involved in the process of insuring a free press. The enforcement of antitrust laws by the Justice Department can, but does not, provide adequate safeguards for the public. Beginning with the 1945 Supreme Court decision, "Associated Press v. United States," many court decisions have been made concerning competitive principles, antitrust, and newspapers. Some of the issues involved include diversity of news and opinions; newspapers acting as local monopolies; the growth of newspaper chains and the resulting demise of independently owned newspapers; the financial difficulties of purchasing, establishing, and operating a competing newspaper; joint operation of competing newspapers; the fairness doctrine; the powers of the licensing agency for the broadcast industry; and divestiture when a newspaper owns a radio or television station in the same city. Any answer to the question of how to insure the existence of a free press must include a program that encourages new capital investment in the newspaper industry to stimulate competition, thereby forcing newspapers to give greater attention to opposing views and matters of public interest. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Communication (Thought Transfer), Competition, Court Litigation

Shoop, Robert J. (1990). States Talk Back to the Supreme Court: "Students Should Be Heard as Well as Seen.", West's Education Law Reporter. The "Hazelwood" decision has moved the argument about student rights of freedom of expression from the courthouse to the statehouse. A growing list of states have considered legislation to restore students' rights, and a number of local school boards are also reaffirming the value of a free student press. Descriptors: Censorship, Court Litigation, Court Role, Federal Courts

Hulteng, John L.; Nelson, Roy Paul (1971). The Fourth Estate: An Informal Appraisal of the News and Opinion Media. Aimed at helping readers become more understanding and more discriminating consumers of the information that the mass media provides, this book explores the rights and responsibilities of a free press within society. Subsequent chapters consider the medium's organization, the "disappearing daily," some weaknesses of the press, the objective-subjective reporting dilemma, ethics in the newsroom, the opinion and editorial function of the press, cartoons and other visuals, the impact of magazines, books and publishing, television news and cable television, advertising, public relations news, and conflicts among various constitutional rights and the right to free speech. Descriptors: Business Responsibility, Cartoons, Civil Rights, Constitutional History

Smith, Jeffery A. (1981). James Franklin and Freedom of the Press in Massachusetts and Rhode Island, 1717-1735. The career of James Franklin, Benjamin Franklin's older brother, provides a case study in the use of polemics for a free press. A printer who actively courted controversy, Franklin found it necessary to use an unusual variety of strategies and justifications to evade or overcome potential legal, religious, and economic restraints. He demonstrated how far a printer could go in criticizing authority and in offending important segments of the population; but, more significantly, his publications articulated a broad libertarian press theory at an early point in the development of American journalism. Descriptors: Case Studies, Censorship, Freedom of Speech, History

Hollstein, Milton (1979). Government and the Press: The Question of Subsidies, Journal of Communication. Describes the controversies taking place in Sweden, West Germany, and England regarding the advisability of government subsidies as a way of maintaining a free and viable press in a period of economic strife. Descriptors: Financial Support, Foreign Countries, Government Role, Newspapers

Renaud-Komiya, Jean-Luc (1983). The U.S. Government's Assistance to the AP's World-Wide Expansion: 1912-1948. A study of the extent of the diplomatic and commercial assistance provided by the United States government to the Associated Press (AP) from 1912 to 1948 shows AP's manager, Kent Cooper, to be less a champion of the free press than an efficient captain of industry in expanding AP influence across the globe. Early in the twentieth century, British, French, and German news bureaus held a monopolistic cartel on the distribution of foreign news throughout Europe. With presidential and State Department aid, the AP moved beyond United States borders first to South America, then to the Far East, by means of Navy broadcasts. In 1934, AP declared complete independence and gained the right to send news anywhere. In the years during and following World War II, Cooper launched a successful free press campaign, and was effective in convincing Congress and other governmental officials of the virtue of and necessity for the United States' fighting for the free flow of information worldwide at international meetings. Critics claimed that Cooper's campaign was a smokescreen for expanding AP's commercial interest on the ruins of the European continent. Ultimately, Cooper did in fact spread the AP across the globe, with the help of government assistance, creating a news cartel denounced today by Third World nations in the same way Cooper denounced the European news cartels in the 1930s and 1940s. Descriptors: Content Analysis, Federal Government, Foreign Countries, Government Role

Goodman, Mark (1988). Reaction: Student Press Law Center, School Press Review. Provides a reaction from the Student Press Law Center to the Hazelwood School District versus Kuhlmeier decision. Urges student journalists and advisors to continue to do their best to produce quality, intelligent publications and to educate school administration and community about the importance of a free student press. Descriptors: Court Judges, Court Litigation, Court Role, Educational Change

Hunter, Kathleen (2000). From Canterbury to Little Rock: The Struggle for Educational Equality for African Americans. Teaching with Historic Places. Canterbury, Connecticut, and Little Rock, Arkansas, are links in a chain of events representing the struggle for equal educational opportunity for African Americans. Focusing on these two communities, this lesson plan highlights two important historic places and the role each played in testing the prevailing assumptions of the time regarding racial integration of schools. It also tells the story of conflict between the rule of law versus mob rule, and the importance of a free press in exposing social injustice. The lesson plan is based on Little Rock Central High School and the Prudence Crandall Museum. This lesson can be used to teach U.S. history units on 19th century reform movements (abolitionism), the civil rights movement, the history of U.S. education, African American history, and women's history. The lesson is divided into seven sections: (1) "About This Lesson"; (2) "Setting the Stage: Historical Context"; (3) "Locating the Site: Maps" (Eastern Half of the United States); (4) "Determining the Facts: Readings" (Prudence Crandall and the Canterbury Female Boarding Academy; All Eyes on Little Rock Central High School); (5) "Visual Evidence: Images" (Prudence Crandall Museum, exterior; Prudence Crandall Museum, exterior; Prudence Crandall Museum, front entry; Prudence Crandall Museum, northeast parlor; Little Rock Central High; Little Rock Central High, entrance; One of the 'Little Rock Nine' Braves a Jeering Crowd); (6) "Putting It All Together: Activities" (The Road to Educational Equality; From Canterbury to Little Rock; The History of Public Education in the Local Community); and (7) "Supplementary Resources."   [More]  Descriptors: Black History, Blacks, Civil Rights, Constitutional Law

Glasser, Theodore L. (1981). Journalism, Privacy, and Embarrassing Facts: A Critical Review of the Newsworthiness Defense. Noting that while much has been said about privacy and the defense of newsworthiness in legal cases involving the unauthorized publication of true but embarrassing facts, this paper points out that there appear to be only three broadly distinguishable–and largely disparate–theories of privacy and newsworthiness, none of them in circulation long enough to have influenced the courts. In an effort to examine these theories critically, the paper begins with a brief overview of the conflict between privacy and a free press, with an emphasis on the legal and moral tension created by an individual's desire to conceal embarrassing facts and the journalist's proclivity to disclose them. The next sections of the paper delineate the three existing theories of newsworthiness, which include (1) the doctrine of Supreme Court Justices Hugo Black and William O. Douglas, giving almost exclusive weight to First Amendment concerns; (2) Thomas Emerson's definitional approach, which calls for full protection of privacy, even when privacy runs counter to a free press; and (3) the standard set forth by Alexander Meikeljohn, refined by Edward Bloustein and operationalized by Randall Bezanson, which defines newsworthiness in terms of the purpose of self-government. The concluding section offers an appraisal of each theory in terms of its contribution to legal theory and, more pragmatically, each theory's contribution to a workable compromise between newsworthiness and invasion of privacy.   [More]  Descriptors: Court Doctrine, Court Litigation, Freedom of Speech, Higher Education

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Bibliography: Free Press (page 05 of 14)

This annotated bibliography is curated specifically for the The News Coop website.  Some of the authors featured on this page include David C. Coulson, Lyle D. Olson, Jerome A. Barron, John Tyler, Richard LaCourse, Thomas Eveslage, Washington American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Sally J. Ray, Donald M Gillmor, and Donald M. Gillmor.

Gillmor, Donald M.; Barron, Jerome A. (1969). Mass Communication Law; Cases and Comment. The teaching materials presented in this casebook combine two perspectives: that of the journalist and that of the lawyer. The holdings of the courts on cases involving the First Amendment, libel, pornography, fair trial, free press, and the regulation of radio and television broadcasting are presented. In addition some problems of law and journalism are discussed more briefly–freedom of information, the right of privacy, advertising, copyright, etc. The casebook relies mainly on the words of the judges themselves and provides comments and questions for discussion. Appendices contain the report of the Committee on the Operation of the Jury System on the "Free Press-Free Trial" Issue, the case of Red Lion Broadcasting v. Federal Communications Commission, and selected provisions of the Federal Communications Act of 1934. A subject index is also provided. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Freedom of Speech, Journalism, Laws

Gillmor, Donald M; Barron, Jerome A. (1971). 1971 Supplement to Mass Communication Law; Cases and Comment. The text of and comments on key court decisions, mostly from the U. S. Supreme Court, made from 1969 to 1971 and relating to mass communication law, are presented. Cases are subsumed under these headings: the First Amendment impact on mass communication; libel and the newsman; the puzzle of pornography; free press and fair trial; selected problems of law and journalism; and the regulation of radio and television broadcasting. Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Cable Television, Civil Rights, Communications

Bloom, Jennifer (1991). Minnesota in the Supreme Court. Lessons on Supreme Court Cases Involving Minnesotans. This document focuses on cases brought by Minnesotans to the U.S. Supreme Court. The five lessons featured are designed to provide secondary classroom teachers with material needed to teach each unit. Lessons cover Supreme Court proceedings, free press issues, freedom of religion, abortion rights, and privilege against self-incrimination. Instructions and materials for conducting mock trials as well as an appendix containing the Bill of Rights, U.S. Constitution, and Minnesota Constitution conclude the volume.   [More]  Descriptors: Citizenship Education, Civil Liberties, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation

Hiebert, Ray E. (1994). Advertising and Public Relations in Transition from Communism: The Case of Hungary, 1989-1994, Public Relations Review. Discusses the gradual rise of free print media, Western-style advertising and marketing, and limited public relations in Hungary in its first four years of democracy (1990-94). Notes how Hungary's first democratically elected government failed to understand the public relations implications of a free press, made one public relations mistake after another, and was roundly voted out of office in 1994. Descriptors: Advertising, Case Studies, Cultural Influences, Foreign Countries

Reporters Committee for Freedom of the Press, Washington, DC. Legal Defense and Research Fund. (1975). Press Censorship Newsletter No. VI. A compendium of legal actions affecting the First Amendment and freedom of information interests of all the media on the federal, state, and local levels, this newsletter contains 316 indexed summaries of "Media Law Reports." The abstracts are arranged in 10 categories: prior restraints on publication and distribution, freedom of information, confidentiality of news sources, fair trial-free press/access to the courts, privacy and libel, right of reply/access to the media, the broadcast media, labor, high school and college press, and miscellaneous developments.   [More]  Descriptors: Broadcast Industry, Censorship, Civil Liberties, Confidentiality

Landgraf, Susan (2001). How To Use a Wheelbarrow and the First Amendment. Both the poem "The Red Wheelbarrow" by William Carlos Williams and the First Amendment of the Bill of Rights show the power of language as vehicles for message. Using them in class as exercises to look at language and meaning will help students understand the importance of connotation and grammar; the use and validity of sources; and the layers of meaning possible with a few precise words. By looking closely at either in a discussion, students see and model the critical thinking process. Both are short, and each are "do-able" in a 50-minute class. The poem can be used in writing and literature classes to show: importance of language; power of imagery; multiple meanings; essence of poetry; and history of the poem and its writer. The First Amendment can be used in writing, journalism, and media and society classes to show: importance of language and meaning of individual words; possible interpretations of the First Amendment; importance of grammar and why having a free press tied to the people and free speech is importance; sources and accuracy; how to judge validity of sources; and use of citations. Either exercise could also be used in sociology, philosophy, anthropology, basic college skills, or history classes. This paper delineates a 6-step process for using "The Red Wheelbarrow" in class and a 5-step process for using the First Amendment. The paper also discusses additional ways to use the materials and suggests several exercises.   [More]  Descriptors: Class Activities, Classroom Techniques, Critical Thinking, Higher Education

Ray, Sally J. (1987). News According to Pretoria: A Legal Perspective concerning the Suppression of Free Speech in South Africa. While the government of South Africa has outwardly promoted democracy since 1983, it nonetheless has placed its press under tight constraint to discourage dissent concerning political issues and enhance the government's credibility. Not only are journalists within the country restricted, but foreign correspondents as well. Moreover, although there are no official censors, censorship is implied by the laws because journalists are restrained from commenting freely and the subject matter on which they may report is limited to issues that are not contentious. The laws are so vague that journalists could easily report something the government subsequently objects to, which engenders a form of self-censorship. South Africa's government states that its mission is democracy, but its reaction concerning free speech contradicts its assertions. A free press is necessary to a democracy because it promotes discussion and dissent, which in turn fosters public consensus. The government, however, believes a free press to be dangerous to its well-being until a democracy is established. South Africa's government needs to understand that a free press is not a product of a democracy but an essential element of the process of peaceful change. (Forty-three references are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: African Culture, African History, Censorship, Civil Rights

LaCourse, Richard (1994). A Quickening Pace: Native American Media 1828 to 1994, Akwe:kon Journal. Traces the development of Native American mass media from the first Cherokee newspaper in 1828 to the present. Discusses tribal newspapers and their impact on community life, provisions for a free press in tribal constitutions, growth of Native publishing, first Native American radio and television stations, satellite broadcasting, and national associations of Native American journalists and broadcasters. Descriptors: American Indian History, American Indians, Cherokee (Tribe), Journalism

Olson, Lyle D.; And Others (1994). State High School Press Freedom Laws: A Profile of Legislative Sponsors. A survey of 22 state legislators nationwide investigated what attitudes or characteristics distinguish successful from unsuccessful legislators in their attempts to pass free press legislation for high school journalists. Seven legislators successful in passing such legislation were asked 20 questions by phone. Surveys were also mailed to 28 unsuccessful legislators; 15 were returned. Results made two demographic distinctions between (1) those legislators supporting free press legislation and those not supporting it; and (2) those successful in supporting it and those not successful. The first set of results showed that supporters were disproportionately educated, members of the Democratic party, and women. Over half had teaching experience and experience as a high school journalist. The second set of results showed that those who were successful considered this legislation to be more important than other legislation; telephone interviews strongly suggested that successful supporters seemed to be more personally committed. Based on data from this study, the ideal legislative sponsor might have some of the following characteristics: personal experience with journalism; experience as an educator; accurate knowledge of high school journalism; ability to cross party lines; and experience as a legislator (someone with "clout"). Further research could determine how students, teachers, and administrators have helped to pass free press legislation. (Contains four tables of data, 24 references, and appendixes with the phone questionnaire and the mail survey.)   [More]  Descriptors: Attitude Measures, Censorship, Freedom of Speech, High School Students

Eveslage, Thomas (1981). A Proposed Press Law and Responsibilities Teaching Unit for Secondary Schools. Prompted in part by recent survey results showing that Americans neither know nor care very much about the First Amendment to the Constitution nor the press's role in defending and exercising the rights it guarantees, a teaching unit was designed to increase students' understanding and appreciation of the First Amendment and its implied responsibilities. The three-week unit was fashioned in content and format by responses given by high school and university journalism educators to a survey concerning the teaching of press law in the secondary schools. Topics covered in the unit include (1) the premise and promise of a free press; (2) prior restraint, censorship, and government authority; (3) libel; (4) invasion of privacy and copyright; (5) confidentiality and free press/free trial; (6) obscenity, responsibility, and codes of ethics; (7) student rights and responsibilities; and (8) advertising and broadcast regulations. A content outline and lists of discussion questions and activities are offered with each topic. The unit concludes with compilations of pertinent court cases; a list of resources, such as the names of appropriate professional organizations and periodicals; and an annotated bibliography of press law materials. (The unit and an annotated list of resources are included.)   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Constitutional Law, Educational Research, Freedom of Speech

Coulson, David C. (1980). Antitrust Law and the Media: Making the Newspapers Safe for Democracy, Journalism Quarterly. Illuminates constitutional and economic problems involved in the process of insuring a free press and demonstrates that the government–armed with antitrust laws through its chief enforcer, the Justice Department–can, but does not, provide adequate safeguards. Descriptors: Certification, Competition, Court Litigation, Economic Factors

Tyler, John (1976). The Egyptian Press: An Historical View of Its Importance in Political Movements. This report traces the development of the Egyptian press, from its origin with the arrival of the first printing press in 1789 to the present free press policies of Anwar Sadat. Because political struggle and social reform have accompanied the educational and cultural progress of Egypt, the news publications have traditionally been utilitarian. Official control of the press was established in 1824 and continued until 1974, in spite of weak constitutional provisions for a free press. Gamal Abdul Nasser enforced strict censorship during his regime, with the singular exception that Mohamed Hassanein Heykal, head of the national press department and Nasser's personal friend, was permitted to maintain intellectual independence and to openly criticize government policies. It was a significant step toward a world perspective for Egypt, the report concludes, when Anwar Sadat ended press censorship in 1974. It is paradoxical, however, that Sadat deposed Heykal, his most vocal critic, at the same time.   [More]  Descriptors: Censorship, Foreign Countries, Freedom of Speech, Information Dissemination

Marnell, William H. (1973). The Right to Know: Media and the Common Good. A study of the citizen in his relationship to the free press, this book examines the right of the citizen to protection against the disclosure of information perilous to the public safety, his right to a fair trial, his right to his reputation, his right to his privacy, and his right to live in the moral climate of his choice. The discussion of each right is supplemented throughout with examinations of famous and lesser-known court decisions. Descriptors: Censorship, Citizen Role, Civil Liberties, Court Litigation

American Newspaper Publishers Association Foundation, Washington, DC. (1987). Free Press & Fair Trial. Revised Edition. In relation to law enforcement and the courts, the press serves to inform the public about crimes and how government institutions deal with them. The press also plays a crucial role in assuring that the rights of individuals guaranteed by the Sixth Amendment are protected. The issue of prejudice, caused by news coverage of crime and criminal proceedings, has been raised in many appeals by convicted persons. The appellate court has refused in virtually all cases to overturn convictions on grounds of pretrial or trial news coverage. Through an analysis of historical and legal precedent, the summary and five chapters of this book describe the way in which the appellate courts have interpreted these cases. Chapter 1 presents the history of the free press of the United States. Chapter 2 discusses the Supreme Court's interpretation of the First Amendment and the evolution of the rights of the free press. The free press and a free trial as guaranteed in the Constitution's Sixth Amendment are outlined in chapter 3. Chapter 4 examines the closing of courtrooms in an effort to ensure the right to an impartial jury, while television in the courtroom is the subject of chapter 5. Descriptors: Civil Rights, Constitutional Law, Court Litigation, Courts

Georgetown Law Journal (1972). Points of Conflict: Legal Issues Confronting Today, Part III. An analysis of the legal issues dealing with mass media today. Topics covered are media ownership, fairness doctrine, federal policy and fine arts, free press/fair trial, and confidentiality of news sources. The latest court decisions and their implications are discussed along with each topic. Descriptors: Communications, Court Litigation, Federal Courts, Federal Legislation

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